The following article by Fr. Louis Verheylezoon, S.J., represents a classical treatment of the history and nature of devotion to Our Lady’s most Immaculate Heart. – Asst. Ed.
Before the thirteenth century there is no trace to be found of a special devotion to the Heart of Mary. The first pious considerations on this subject occur in the writings of St. Mechtilde (1298), St. Gertrude (1302), Tauler (1361), St. Bernardine of Siena (1444), Justus Landsberger (1539), and especially of St. Francis of Sales (1622).
From the sixteenth century onward, theologians and spiritual writers make mention of this devotion. St. John Eudes (1680) quotes, among the writers who speak of it, twelve Jesuits, whom he calls “the twelve apostles of the divine Heart of Mary,” the most famous of whom are: St. Peter Canisius, Suarez, Nierenberg and Cornelius a Lapide.
Yet it is to St. John Eudes that is due the honor of having given the decisive impulse to the devotion. He was its zealous apostle and learned theologian. Through his preaching of popular missions, he propagated it in about twenty dioceses of France, established everywhere confraternities, wrote a great work on The admirable Heart of the Holy Mother of God, composed a Mass and an Office, and labored to obtain at Rome the institution of a Feast, but without success (1669).
After his death, the devotion met with a powerful auxiliary in the movement which originated from Paray-le-Monial. The first apostles of the Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, St. Margaret Mary, Bl. Claude de la Colombière, Bouzonie, Croiset, were also devout clients of the Heart of Mary. Fr. Pinamonti, S.J., wrote a book on the Devotion (1699), which strongly contributed to its diffusion in Italy. In his remarkable work on “The Devotion to the Adorable Heart of Jesus Christ,” Fr. de Galliffet treats at length of the devotion to the Heart of Mary. (1) In his turn he endeavored to obtain a feast in its honor, at the same time as a feast in honor of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (1726), but he met with as little success as St. John Eudes.
Papal approbation came at last. In 1799, Pope Pius VI authorized the Bishop of Palermo to institute the feast in his diocese. In 1805, Pope Pius VII granted the same favor to those who should ask for it, but with the Office and Mass of Our Lady of the Snow. In 1855, Pius IX approved a special Mass and Office. And in 1944, Pius XII extended the Feast to the universal Church, under the title of Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, (2) with a new Mass and new Office, and transferred the Feast from the Sunday after the Assumption to the 22nd of August.
In the meantime four particular events had given a new impulse and an extraordinary popularity to the devotion—namely, the spread of “the miraculous medal,” the erection of the Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, in Paris, in the church of Notre-Dame des Victoires; the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin at Fatima (Portugal), and the Consecration of the Church and of the human race to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, by Pope Pius XII.
1. The “miraculous medal” owes its origin to an apparition of Our Lady to St. Catherine Labouré, a Sister of Charity, on November 27th, 1830. The Blessed Virgin showed her a medal, bearing on one side a representation of herself with the inscription: “O Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us, who have recourse to Thee”; and on the other side, under the letter M, the Hearts of Jesus and of Mary, the former surrounded with a crown of thorns, the latter pierced with a sword. She ordered the Sister to make and propagate medals after that design, and promised her that all who wore them and devoutly recited this invocation could be sure of her special protection. In a short time innumerable graces, wonderful cures and extraordinary conversions strengthened the confidence of the faithful in the power of the medal, which soon acquired the name of “the miraculous medal.”
2. The Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary was erected, in 1836, in Paris, in the church of Notre-Dame des Victoires, by the parish priest, Rev. Fr. Desgenettes. The Father was completely discouraged by the lamentable condition of his parish, when, on December 3rd, 1836, feast of St. Francis Xavier, during his mass, he thought he heard an inward voice which, twice over, said to him: “Consecrate your parish to the most holy and Immaculate Heart of Mary.” After hesitating for a long time, he obeyed the call, and established moreover a Confraternity, in order to honor in a special way the Immaculate Heart of Mary and to obtain the conversion of sinners through her intercession with the Divine Mercy. Contrary to all expectations, the new association met with an extraordinary success. Sinners returned to the Lord in great numbers, and in a short time the parish was completely transformed. Struck by this marvelous result, Pope Gregory XI raised the confraternity to the rank of Archconfraternity for the universal Church as early as 1838. Everywhere confraternities were erected and affiliated to it; in 1890, there were already more than 19,000, with more than 30,000,000 members. Everywhere they could record miracles of conversion. Nor did Pope Pius IX hesitate to call the Archconfraternity “a heavenly inspiration, a work of God, a source of blessings for the Church,” and he enriched it with precious indulgences.
3. In 1917 the Blessed Virgin appeared several times, at Fatima (Portugal), to three children, each time on the 13th day of the month. She asked that people should pray more for the conversion of sinners, and that sacrifices should be made to atone for their transgressions. In the last apparition, she declared: “I am Our Lady of the Rosary. I have come to persuade them to change their ways of living, to no longer offend Our Lord by their sins, to recite the rosary. I desire that a chapel should be built here. If men change their ways, the war will soon come to an end.” There then occurred an impressive solar phenomenon, which the Blessed Virgin had foretold in confirmation of the divine origin of the apparitions. On October 13th, 1930, the Bishop of Leiria, in whose diocese Fatima is situated, proclaimed that the visions of the children were fully trustworthy, and that the cult of Our Lady of Fatima was officially approved.
Later on, one of the seers related that the Blessed Virgin had recommended the devotion to her Immaculate Heart as a means of converting sinners; that she foretold that if men did not return to God, there would be another war, even more terrible; and that she desired the Consecration of Russia… to her Immaculate Heart.
Fatima is at the present moment one of the most famous places of pilgrimage in the world. From the outset many wonderful cures were recorded there; and ever since there has been a remarkable increase of gifts and graces obtained at the shrine. Yet what may be considered the greatest miracle of Fatima is the moral and religious revival of Portugal.
4. On October 13th, 1942, on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the apparitions of Our Lady at Fatima, Pope Pius XII addressed a broadcast to the Portuguese nation, and, in a moving prayer for peace, for the Church and the whole world, he consecrated the Church and the Universe to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. He ended his address with these words:
Even as the Church and the whole human race were consecrated to the Heart of Jesus, that they might place in Him all their hopes and that this Heart might be for them a token and assurance of salvation, so may they also for ever be consecrated to Thee, to Thy Immaculate Heart, O Mary, our Mother and Queen of the world, that Thy love and Thy protection may hasten the triumph of the Kingdom of God on earth, and that all nations, reconciled to each other and to God, may proclaim Thee blessed and, from one end of the earth to the other, may sing together with Thee the eternal Magnificat of glory, of love and gratitude towards the Heart of Jesus, in Whom alone they can find Truth, Life and Peace. (3)
Object of the Devotion
The object of the Devotion, i.e. that which we intend specially to honor in the Blessed Virgin, is commonly regarded as her physical Heart, considered as a symbol of her love for God and for men.
This object is indicated in the decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites (May 4th, 1944), whereby the Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary was extended to the universal Church. “By this cult,” we read there, “the Church renders to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary the honor which is due to her, since, under the symbol of this Heart, she pays homage to her eminent holiness, and particularly to her ardent love for God and her Son Jesus, and to her maternal love for men, redeemed by the Blood of God.” (4)
In this way it was already considered by the Consultors of the same Congregation, who approved the devotion in 1857. (5) It should be noted, however, that in the Office and Mass approved of on that occasion, mention is almost solely made of her love for God. The actual Mass and Office now in use emphasize her love for men, and arouse especially our trust in her intercession.
At Lauds, the Church bids us say: “O Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of graces, hope of the human race, hear us Thy sons, who cry to Thee.”
The Introit of the Mass applies to the Heart of Mary what St. Paul says of Christ: “Let us come with confidence to the Throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and may find grace for a timely help” (Heb. 4:16).
The Gospel is the passage of St. John (Chapter 19), where Jesus gives John as son to His Mother, and Mary as Mother to John, and where, according to the Fathers of the Church, Mary is appointed to be the Mother of all Christians. And the lessons of the third Nocturn, derived from the book by the Father of the Church, St. Robert Bellarmine, S.J., on the words of Christ on the cross, afford a magnificent commentary on this text, and dwell on the love of Mary towards men and on the special protection upon which the devout clients of Mary may rely.
The formal object then of the devotion—at least its essential object—is the love of the Blessed Virgin for God, for her Divine Son Jesus, and for men.
Yet, just as in the devotion to the Heart of Jesus, the faithful, with the approval of the Church, extend the object of the devotion, and include in it not only the love of the Heart of Mary, but also her whole inner life, her virtues, especially her love of purity and her humility, and all her affections, particularly her sorrows.
And not without reasons. For the Heart is, as we have seen, not only the symbol of love, but also of the whole affective and moral life. Moreover, Mary’s inner life was entirely under the influence of the love of God; all her affections and all her virtues were nothing else but different forms of her love. Thus her whole inner life is the secondary object of the devotion. This symbolism appears clearly in the manner in which the Heart of Mary is usually represented, i.e. surrounded with roses, symbol of her virtues, and pierced with a sword, symbol of her sorrows.
But the physical Heart of Mary, considered as a symbol, is not the whole object of the devotion. What we call her spiritual Heart, that is, the unity formed by the faculties of the soul which concur to the production of her love and of her entire inner life, also forms part of it. In fact, we say of this Heart that it bears us a truly maternal love, that it is full of mercy for sinners, that it loves purity, etc. These qualities, however, do not appertain to Mary’s physical Heart, but to her spiritual Heart. The latter, then, forms part of the object of the devotion, as symbol, principle and seat of her love and of her whole inner life.
The complete object of the devotion is, therefore, the total Heart of Mary, that is, the whole formed by her physical Heart and her spiritual Heart, considered at once as symbol, principle and seat of her love and of her entire inner life.
It is evident that, just as in the devotion to the Heart of Jesus, the final and ultimate and at the same time principal object of the devotion is the person of Mary herself. Through her Heart, our homage is directed to her person. Hence, devotion to the Heart of Mary is nothing else but a special form of devotion to the Blessed Virgin. It considers Mary in her Heart, and in her Heart it sees and honors her affections, her virtues, principally her love, with which it is closely connected and of which it is the living symbol.
Ends and Practice of the Devotion
The contemplation of the Heart of Mary must arouse in us a three-fold sentiment: a profound veneration, a filial love, and an unshakable confidence.
First, a profound veneration.
In fact, the Heart of Mary is the Heart of the Mother of God. It shares in His sublime dignity, and hence has a just claim to a quite special cult. (6)
It is the Heart of the Queen of Angels and of all the Saints, whom she surpasses in glory, and by whom she is honored with the deepest reverence.
It is the most pure, the most perfect, the most holy Heart that has ever beaten in the breast of a human creature; a Heart adorned with all virtues and endowed with all graces; the favorite dwelling of the Most Blessed Trinity.
It is the Heart that has always beaten solely for the love of God, for the love of Jesus, and for the love of men. It really deserves then that we should offer it our deepest veneration.
This we can do, for instance, by celebrating the Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (August 22) and by observing the month of August dedicated to her, by honoring the image of her heart, etc.
A filial love.
Mary loves us, because we are the children of God; because her Divine Son loves us; because she is our Mother. She loves us with a truly maternal love. She loves us as never a mother has loved her children.
For love of us, she accepted to become the Mother of the Savior, though she foresaw all the consequences which this motherhood would entail. For love of us, she consented to the death of her Son, and, in union with Him, she offered it to God for our Redemption; she may then rightly be called our Co-redeemer.
And she remains our great Benefactress; she watches over us with a very motherly solicitude; she intercedes for us, and succors us in all our trials and troubles. In Heaven we shall see with grateful emotion all we owe her, how many times she has helped us in our difficulties, protected us in danger, strengthened us in temptation, come to our rescue in critical moments.
To this maternal love of the Heart of Mary we ought to respond with a filial love. Hence we shall often express to her our gratitude and love. We shall rejoice in her sublime dignity, in her privileges, her virtues, her glory; we shall express our admiration, congratulate her, and wish her to be better known, honored, and especially more ardently loved.
If we love Mary, we shall consecrate ourselves to her Heart.
The consecration properly so called is, as we have seen, a total donation of ourselves and after making this offering we no longer belong to ourselves. By the consecration, then, we give ourselves up to the Heart of Mary, in order to live only for her, to fulfill in all things her holy will and wishes, and to promote her interests as if they were our own.
But, are we permitted to give ourselves entirely up to anyone other than God or Jesus? To Mary, certainly. What we give to Mary, we give to Jesus and to God. Of what we give her, she will make no use but in accordance with Christ’s desires, in accordance with God’s purposes, for their interests and their glory. And there is no doubt that this consecration will be very agreeable to Them; on account of the love which They bear to Mary, all homage, every token of love that is given her cannot fail to be supremely pleasing to Them. So far from dissuading the faithful from it, the Vicar of Christ set the example of this consecration.
Yet, are we permitted to consecrate ourselves to the Heart of Mary if we have already made our consecration to the Heart of Jesus? Undoubtedly. One does not prevent the other. On the contrary, the consecration to the Heart of Mary will help us a great deal to be more faithful in living up to our consecration to the Heart of Jesus. (7)
Love tends to resemble the beloved. If we really love Mary, we shall want to make our hearts as conformable as possible to her Heart.
Mary desires it because a mother wishes, almost inevitably, that her children should be like herself.
The Heart of Mary is the perfect image of the Heart of Jesus. Hence, to imitate the Heart of Mary is to make our hearts conformable to that of Jesus.
The Heart of Mary is the model of all virtues. To try to imitate it, is to tend to perfection.
For these reasons we shall endeavor to cultivate in our hearts the virtues of the Heart of Mary, particularly her love for God and for her Divine Son; her charity, her humility, her love of purity, her submission to the will of God, her patience, and her strength of soul.
But a good-hearted child is also sensitive to the sufferings of his mother. What did Mary not suffer in her Heart? She is called with justice the Queen of Martyrs. Her sufferings began with Simeon’s prophecy, and ended only on the day of the Resurrection. They reached their climax on Calvary, at the foot of the cross. They exceeded in acuteness every other suffering, as they were in proportion to the sufferings of Jesus and to the love she bore to Him. Never has a man suffered like Jesus, and never was purely human love so strong as that with which Mary loved her Divine Son.
If then we love Mary, we shall be eager to ponder over the sufferings of her Heart; we shall express to her our sympathy and compassion, and also our love and regret; our gratitude, because she accepted those sufferings for our sakes; our love, because she deigned to endure them for love of us; our regret, because we have been the cause of them by our sins.
We shall also be sensitive to the mockeries, slander and outages of which she is the object on the part of so many men. We shall express to her our grief for them, and also for the conduct of men towards her Divine Son, indeed, particularly for that, for it is on this point above all that she is very sensitive…
These sufferings of the Heart of Mary should not only excite our sorrow, but should also incite us to make reparation. Love tries to soothe the pains of the beloved, to make up for the wrong done to him. We shall, then, compensate the Heart of Mary by making amends for the outrages inflicted upon it, and console it for the unworthy conduct of men towards her dearly beloved Jesus.
In the liturgy of the Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary there is no question of reparation. Hence the official cult of her Heart has not the atoning character which is proper to that of the Heart of Jesus. Nor is reparation, as is the case for the devotion to the Heart of Jesus, one of the essential features of the devotion. It is clear, however, that reparation ought to have some place in it. The Church has recognized and sanctioned it, by approving the practice of the First Saturday of the month as reparation for the outrages inflicted on the Heart of Mary, and by granting indulgences for it. (8)
In her apparitions at Fatima, the Blessed Virgin repeatedly insisted that reparation should be made to her Heart. “Are you willing to suffer,” she asked the children in her first apparition… “in order to make up for all the outrages that are offered to the Immaculate Heart of Mary?” And in the third apparition she said: “Repeat frequently, but especially when you make any sacrifice: O Jesus, it is… in reparation for the outrages that are offered to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.” Again: “I shall ask… that the Communion of Reparation should be practiced on the first Saturday of each month.”
A third sentiment which the contemplation of the Heart of Mary should enkindle within us, is an unbounded and unshakable confidence.
This confidence is based on the kindness and love of the Heart of Mary, and on the power of her intercession.
The Heart of Mary is the most perfect reproduction of the Heart of Jesus. It is therefore goodness itself. Mary is our Mother and loves us as her children. She loves each one of us, without exception, however guilty we may be. She is the “Mother of Mercy.”
On the other hand, her intercession is all-powerful with her Divine Son. What could a Son like Jesus refuse to a Mother like Mary? She is rightly called “the suppliant Omnipotence.”
Moreover, Jesus has appointed her the Dispenser of all graces. In union with her Son, and in accordance with His designs, she disposes of the treasures of graces which He merited for us.
She is particularly the “Refuge of sinners.” She loves them, in spite of their unworthiness. She loves them, because she is mercy itself. She loves them, because they, too, are her children. She loves them, because their souls have cost so much to her Divine Son and to herself.
We will then have an unbounded and unshakable trust in the kindness, love and power of the Heart of Mary. We will have recourse to her in all our trials and troubles. We will call on her, in particular to obtain the conversion of sinners, and specially of those who are dear to us.
We will also offer to the Heart of Jesus, as the Apostleship of Prayer invites its members to do, all our prayers, actions, and sufferings, “through the Immaculate Heart of Mary.” Being offered through the Heart of Mary, they will be more agreeable to Jesus, the more perfect, the more meritorious for ourselves, and of more help to souls.
Motives for Practicing the Devotion
Treating of the ends and practice of the devotion, we have seen how fit and proper it is that we should honor, love, invoke, imitate the Heart of Mary, and console it by our compassion and reparation.
It is obvious that this is also agreeable to God, to Jesus and to Mary. They have, moreover, clearly shown it, and still show it, by the priceless and innumerable graces, particularly by the many often remarkable and unexpected conversions, obtained by invoking the Heart of Mary. The Manuel of the Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and the Annales of Notre-Dame des Victoires are an eloquent proof of it.
Besides, the Blessed Virgin repeatedly made the declaration in her apparitions at Fatima. “Jesus,” she said in the second apparition, “demands the establishment in the world of the devotion to my Immaculate Heart.” Again: “No, my daughter, I shall never abandon you. My Heart will be your refuge and the way that leads you to God.” Thereupon the children perceived “before the right hand of the Apparition a Heart, surrounded with thorns which pierced it through and through.” They understood that they contemplated the Immaculate Heart of Mary, afflicted by the sins of men. In the third apparition, she said: “Our Lord wishes to establish in the world the devotion to my Immaculate Heart, in order to convert sinners … I shall ask the Consecration of Russia to my Immaculate Heart, and the practice of the Communion of Reparation on the First Saturdays. My Immaculate Heart will triumph in the end. The Holy Father will consecrate Russia to me.”
The devout clients of the Heart of Jesus have, moreover, a special motive for practicing devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in the close relations which unite the two Hearts.
The Heart of Mary is the living replica of the Heart of Jesus. Is it possible to love the Heart of Jesus and not to love the Heart of Mary?
No other heart has ever loved Jesus like that of Mary. Nor has any heart loved Mary like that of Jesus. How could we separate both Hearts in our love?
It is to Mary that we owe the Heart of Jesus. Thanks to her consent, Jesus could, within her, take to Himself a human heart. But it is to Jesus that we owe the Heart of Mary. He it is who formed it, enriched and adorned it with His graces. He it is who imparted to it its love for us, and made it the masterpiece of His love and His power. Is it not natural, therefore, that we should closely join both Hearts in our worship and love?
That is what the first apostles of the Devotion to the Heart of Jesus have understood and put into practice.
We have seen that both St. John Eudes, “the author of the liturgical cult of the Sacred Heart of Jesus,” and Fr. de Galliffet, the writer of the masterly work De l’excellence de la dévotion au Coeur adorable de Jésus-Christ were also apostles of the devotion to the Heart of Mary.
It was Jesus in person who instructed St. Margaret Mary to make His Heart and that of His Holy Mother the double object of her homage and devotion. One day, He showed her her heart in the midst of His own Heart and of that of Mary, and said to her: “Thus it is that My pure love unites these three hearts for ever.” (9)
During the Advent of 1685, she recommends her novices the following practices: “You will offer five times to the Eternal Father the sacrifices which the Sacred Heart of His Divine Son offers Him by Its ardent charity on the altar of the Heart of His Mother, asking of Him that all hearts may return to Him and devote themselves to His love. You will make this aspiration as often as possible: ‘I adore and love Thee, O Divine Heart of Jesus living in the Heart of Mary; I conjure Thee to live and reign in all hearts, and to consume them in Thy pure love.’” (10) And repeatedly she urges Fr. Croiset to insert in his book on the Devotion to the Sacred Heart the Litany of the most pure Heart of Mary. (11)
Bl. Claude de la Colombière, in his Retreat-journal, ends one of his meditations as follows:
O Hearts, really deserving to possess all hearts, to rule over all hearts of Angels and of men! You will henceforth be my rule, and in similar situations, I shall try to make Your sentiments my own. It is my will that henceforth my heart should only be in the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, or that the Hearts of Jesus and of Mary should be in mine, that They may impart to it Their feelings, and that it be only moved in conformity with the impressions which it receives from these Hearts.
And Fr. Croiset indicates devotion to the Heart of Mary as the most efficacious means of arriving at the love of Jesus. “For,” he says, “the sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary are too much alike and too much united for one to have access to the one and not to the other, with this difference, however, that the Heart of Jesus admits only extremely pure souls, and that the Heart of Mary purifies, by the graces which she obtains for them, those that are not pure, and enables them to be received in the Heart of Jesus.” (12)
Through the Heart of Mary, then, to the Heart of Jesus!
Who is more able to make us love this Heart, than She who, better than any one else, knows Its infinite lovableness and boundless charity; She who loves this Heart as no one else has loved or will love It, and who longs for nothing so much as to see It loved by all?
Who is more able to obtain for us to be loved in our turn by this Heart, than She who has such a powerful influence over this Heart, and who could not wish or procure anything better for us, her children, than to be loved by her Divine Son?
Who, finally, is more able to open to us the infinite treasures of this Heart and to allow us to draw from this store at will, than She who has been appointed by Jesus Himself, the Mediatrix and Dispenser of all graces? (13)
This article was excerpted from Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus: Object, Ends, Practice, Motives, Tan, 1978.
(1) De Galliffet, The Devotion to the Adorable Heart of Jesus Christ, Book III, chap. IV.
(2) Formerly it was called “Feast of the Most Pure Heart of Mary.”
(3) AAS, November 23rd, 1942, p. 346.
(4) AAS vol. XXXVIII, p. 50.
(5) Cf. Nilles, Memoriale, Liber II, cap. iv.
(6) Theologians call it “cultus hyperduliae,” whereas the cult rendered to the other Saints is termed “cultus duliae.”
(7) On the Consecration to the Heart of Mary, see St. Grignon de Montfort, Traité sur la véritable dévotion à la très Sainte Vierge.
(8) Decree of June 13, 1912. Cf. AAS September 30, 1912. See also Preces et pia opera, n. 335.
(9) Vie et Oeuvres, vol. II, Ecrits par ordre de la Mère de Saumaise, n. 55, p. 166.
(10) Ibid., vol. II, Défis et instructions, pp. 750-51.
(11) Ibid., vol. II, pp. 538, 554, 617.
(12) Croiset, S.J., La dévotion au sacré Coeur de Jésus, pt. II, chap. IV, § v.
(13) On the Devotion to the Heart of Mary, see St. John Eudes, Le Coeur admirable de la très Sainte Mère de Dieu; Pinamonti, S.J., Il sacro Cuore di Maria; de Galliffet, S.J., De l’excellence de la devotion au Coeur adorable de Jésus-Christ, Book III, chap, IV; Nilles, S.J., De ratione festorum Beatissimi Cordis Jesu et purissimi Cordis Mariae; de Franciosi, S.J., La devotion au sacré Coeur de Jesus et au saint Coeur de Marie; Terrien, S.J., La dévotion au sacré Coeur de Jesus, Book IV, chap, IV; Nix, S.J., Cultus SS. Cordis Jesu cum additamento de cultu purissimi Cordis B. Mariae Virginis; Bainvel, S.J., Le saint Coeur de Marie; Pujobras, C.M.F., Cultus purissimi Cordis B. Mariae Virginis (1943); Sinibaldi, Il Cuore della Madre di amore. II Cuore immaculato di Maria. Corso di conferenze (1946); Dublanchy, Dévotion au Coeur de Marie in Dictionnaire de theologie catholique; Sauve, Le culte du Coeur de Marie; Lebesconte, Le Coeur de Marie, d’apres Saint Jean Eudes.
Originally from: Mother of All Peoples (USA)