Mary Co-redemptrix: A Tanggapan 7 Common Objections

on Désémber 23, 2000, The New York Times ran a cover story in its “Arts and Ideas” section on the Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici movement, nu nyiar watesan papal of Virgin Mary Nu Maha Agung salaku Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix sadaya graces jeung ngajengkeun. artikel ieu dina gilirannana reprinted dina jumlah agung US. major newspapers, thereby sparking renewed and high-spirited debate internationally over the concept of Our Lady as “Co-redemptrix,” both inside and outside Catholic circles of thought.

Although diverse in their formulation, most objections to Our Lady’s title of Co-redemptrix and her subsequent role in Coredemption fall into the same foundational categories (many of which were debated in recent publications in response to The New York Times piece). There is a critical need to articulate to the general public (let alone to the growing genus of uncatechized Catholic faithful), the basic doctrinal truths contained in the Catholic Church’s use of Co-redemptrix and its ongoing discussion pertinent to a possible papal definition.

The call of the Second Vatican Council to “bring Christ to the world,” with an evangelical focus not simply within the confines of the Church, but to the world, applies as well to the Christian truth regarding the Mother of Christ. This conciliar call to proclaim Christian truth to the world, inclusive of Christian truth about Mary, is at the same time an evangelical call that must be free from any doctrinal compromise in presenting the entire doctrinal truth about Mary as officially taught by the Catholic Church—a doctrinal truth which essentially includes Marian co-redemption.

What follows then is a synthesis of seven common objections to Mary Co-redemptrix and the doctrinal role of Marian co-redemption, taken principally from recent publications, both secular and Christian. A fundamental summary response will be offered to each objection, with a general mind for the Catholic and non-Catholic reader alike. In an effort to allow each response to stand independently of the other responses, some content is repeated within responses where appropriate.

Kaweratan 1. Calling Mary a “Co-redemptrix” places her on an equal level with Jesus Christ, the Divine Son of God, making her something like a fourth person of the Trinity, a goddess or quasi-divine goddess, which is blasphemy for any true Christian.

The Catholic Church’s use of the title, “Co-redemptrix” as applied to the Mother of Jesus in no sense places Mary on a level of equality with Jesus Christ, the Divine Redeemer. There is an infinite difference between the divine person of Jesus Christ and the human person, Mary. Rada, papal teaching has used the title, “Co-redemptrix” to refer to the unique participation of the Mother of Jesus with and under her divine son in the work of human redemption.

The term, “co-redemptrix” is properly translated “the woman with the redeemer” or more literally “she who buys back with (the redeemer).” The prefix, "co,” comes from the Latin term, "cum,” which means “with” and not “equal to.” Co-redemptrix therefore as applied to Mary refers to her exceptional cooperation with and under her divine son, Jesus Christ in the redemption of the human family, as manifested in Christian Scripture.

Jeung Mary Kang haratis sareng aktif "Fiat" ka ondangan Malaikat Jibril pikeun jadi ibu Yesus, "Kudu eta dipigawé ka kuring nurutkeun kecap Anjeun" (Lk. 1:38), manéhna unik cooperated jeung karya panebusan ku dipaké, méré Redeemer Allah awakna, nu ieu pisan alat panebusan manusa. “We have been sanctified by the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all” (Ngabogaan. 10:10), and the body of Jesus Christ is given to him through the free, aktip, and unique cooperation of the Virgin Mary. By virtue of giving flesh to the “Word made flesh” (Jn.1:14), who in turn redeems humanity, the Virgin of Nazareth uniquely merits the title Co-redemptrix. In the words of the late Mother Teresa of Calcutta, “Of course Mary is the Co-redemptrix—she gave Jesus his body, and his body is what saved us.” (1)

The New Testament prophecy of Simeon in the temple also reveals the suffering, co-redemptive mission of Mary in direct union with her Redeemer son in their one unified work of redemption: “Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, 'Behold, this child is set for the fall and rise of many in Israel, and will be a sign of contradiction, and a sword shall pierce through your own soul, teuing " (Lk. 2:34-35).

But the climax of Mary’s role as Co-redemptrix under her divine son takes place at the foot of the Cross, where the total suffering of the mother’s heart is obediently united to the suffering of the Son’s heart in fulfillment of the Father’s plan of redemption (cf. Gal 4:4). As the fruit of this redemptive suffering, Mary is given by the crucified Savior as the spiritual mother of all peoples, "Sampéan, behold putra Anjeun!'Saterusna cenah ka murid nu, 'Behold, indung anjeun!" (Jn.19:27). As described by Pope John Paul II, Mary was “spiritually crucified with her crucified son” at Calvary, and “her role as Co-redemptrix did not cease with the glorification of her Son.” (2) Even after the accomplishment of the acquisition of the graces of redemption at Calvary, Mary’s co-redemptive role continues in the distribution of those saving graces to the hearts of humanity.

The earliest Christian writers and Fathers of the Church explained Marian co-redemption with great profundity in simplicity in the first theological model of Mary as the “New Eve.” Essentially, they articulated that as Eve, kahiji "basa nu hirup" (Gen. 3:20) was directly instrumental with Adam, the father of the human race, in the loss of grace for all humanity, jadi teuing Mary, the “New Eve,” was directly instrumental with Jesus Christ, whom St. Paul calls the “New Adam” (Cf. 1 Warna. 15:45-48), di restorasi of rahmat ka sakabeh umat manusa. In the words of 2nd century Church Father, St. Irenaeus: "Ngan salaku Hawa, pamajikan Adam, tacan masih parawan, jadi ku hal nu henteu patuh nya anu ngabalukarkeun maot keur dirina jeung ras manusa sakabeh, jadi Mary, oge, espoused yet a virgin, became by her obedience the cause of salvation for herself and the whole human race.” (3)

In light of her unique and direct cooperation with the Redeemer in the restoration of grace for the human family (cf. Gen. 3:15), Mary became universally known in the early Church as the “New Mother of the Living,” and her instrumental co-redemption with Christ was well summed in the succinct expression of 4th century Church Father, St. Jerome: "Aéh ngaliwatan Hawa, hirup ngaliwatan Mary. " (4)

Explicit references to Marian co-redemption as Mary’s unique participation with and under Jesus Christ in redeeming or “buying back” humanity from the slavery of Satan and sin is present throughout Christian Tradition. Salaku conto, the 7th century Church writer, Modestus Yerusalem, states that through Mary, we “are redeemed from the tyranny of the devil.” (5) St John Damascene (8abad th) greets her: "Thou Bagea, through whom we are redeemed from the curse.” (6) St. Bernard of Clairvaux (12abad th) preaches that, “through her, man was redeemed.” (7) The great Franciscan Doctor, St. Bonaventure (13abad th) aptly summarizes Christian Tradition in this teaching: "Wanoja Nu (nyaéta Hawa), drove urang kaluar ti Paradise jeung dijual ka urang; tapi ieu hiji (Mary) brought us back again and bought us.” (8)

Although there was never any question of the total and radical dependency of the Virgin Mary’s participation in redemption upon the divine work and merits of Jesus Christ in the minds of the Church fathers and doctors, nonetheless early Christian Tradition did not hesitate to teach and preach the unparalleled intimate participation of the woman, Mary, in the “buying back” or redeeming of the human race from the slavery of Satan. As humanity was sold by a man and a woman, so it was God’s will that humanity would be bought back by a Man and a woman.

It is upon this rich Christian foundation that 20th century popes and saints have used the title Co-redemptrix for Mary’s unique role in human redemption, as exemplified in the contemporary use of Co-redemptrix for Mary by Pope John Paul II on at least six occasions during his present pontificate. (9) “Co-redemptrix” as used by the popes means no more that Mary is a goddess equal with Jesus Christ than St. Paul’s identification of all Christians as “God’s co-workers”(1 Warna. 3:9) means that Christians are gods equal to the one God.

All Christians are rightly called to be co-workers or “co-redeemers” with Jesus Christ (cf. Col. 1:24) in the reception and cooperation with grace necessary for our own redemption and the redemption of others—personal subjective redemption made possible by the historic objective redemption or “buying back” accomplished by Jesus Christ, the “New Adam,” the Redemptor, and Mary, the “New Eve,” the Co-redemptrix.

Kaweratan 2: Calling the Blessed Virgin Mary, “Co-redemptrix” is against proper Christian ecumenism, as it leads to division between Catholics and other Christians.

Arguably the most commonly posed objection to the use of Co-redemptrix (let alone any potential definition of the doctrine) is its perceived opposition to Christian ecumenism. Therefore we must begin with an accurate definition of authentic Christian ecumenism and its appropriate corresponding activity as understood by the Catholic Church.

In his papal document on ecumenism, Ut Unum Sint, (“that they all may be one” Jn. 17:21), Pope John Paul II defines authentic Christian ecumenism in terms of prayer “as the soul” and dialogue “as the body” working towards the ultimate goal of true and lasting Christian unity. (10) Dina waktos anu sasarengan, the Catholic imperative to work and strive for Christian unity does not permit in any degree the reduction or dilution of Catholic doctrinal teaching, as such would both lack Catholic integrity and concurrently be misleading in dialogue with other non-Catholic Christians as to what the Catholic Church truly believes.

As the Second Vatican Council clearly teaches in terms of ecumenical dialogue: “It is, tangtosna, essential that doctrine be clearly presented in its entirety. Nothing is so foreign to the spirit of ecumenism as a false conciliatory approach which harms the purity of Catholic doctrine and obscures its assured genuine meaning.” (11)

John Paul II further explains:

With regard to the study of areas of disagreement, the Council requires that the whole body of doctrine be clearly presented. Dina waktos anu sasarengan, it asks that the manner and method of expounding the Catholic faith should not be a hindrance to dialogue with our brothers and sisters…Full communion of course will have to come about through the acceptance of the whole truth into which the Holy Spirit guides Christ’s disciples. Hence all forms of reductionism or facile “agreement” must be absolutely avoided. (12)

An accurate understanding then of ecumenism from the Catholic perspective is the critical Church mandate to pray, to dialogue, and to work together in charity and in truth in the seeking of true Christian unity among all brothers and sisters in Christ, but without any compromise in presenting the full doctrinal teachings of the Church. The present pope, so personally dedicated to authentic Christian unity, again affirms: “The unity willed by God can be attained only by the adherence of all to the content of revealed faith in its entirety. In matters of faith, compromise is in contradiction with God who is Truth. In the Body of Christ, ‘the way, kanyataanna, and the life’ (Jn.14:6), who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought about at the expense of the truth?" (13)

Let us now apply this understanding of ecumenism to the question of Mary Co-redemptrix. The Co-redemptrix title for Mary has been used in repeated papal teaching, and the doctrine of Marian co-redemption as Mary’s unique participation with and under Jesus Christ in the redemption of humanity constitutes the repeated doctrinal teaching of the Second Vatican Council:

…She devoted herself totally, as handmaid of the Lord, ka jalma tur karya Putra dirina, sahandapeun tur kalawan anjeunna, porsi nu misteri tina panebusan, ku rahmat Alloh swt. Rightly, janten, the founding tempo Mary teu saukur salaku passively aktipitas ku Allah, tapi kalawan bébas cooperating dina karya kasalametan manusa ngaliwatan iman jeung taqwa. (14)

Jeung saterusna:

Ku kituna Nu Maha Agung Virgin maju dina ibadah haji nya iman, jeung faithfully persevered dina rugbi jeung Putra nya ka salib, di mana baé ngadeg, dina ngajaga jeung rencana Allah, enduring jeung dirina ngan begotten Putra intensitas sangsara nya, patali dirina jeung kurban di jantung indungna Kang, jeung lovingly consenting ka immolation hiji mangsa ieu nu lahir nya. (15)

Jeung saterusna:

Manéhna teu katimu, dibawa mudik, jeung nu kaparaban Kristus, manéhna disajikan Anjeunna ka Rama di Bait, babarengan sangsara Putra nya jadi Manéhna maot disalib. Janten, cara wholly singular manéhna cooperated ku taqwa nya, kapercayaan, harepan, jeung ngaduruk zakat dina karya nu Juru Salamet di malikkeun hirup gaib ka jiwa. Dumasar kana alesan ieu manéhna hiji basa ka urang dina raraga rahmat. (16)

Thereby, there is no question that Marian Co-redemption constitutes the doctrinal teaching of the Catholic Church and as such must be presented in any true articulation of Catholic teaching, which critically includes the domain of true ecumenical dialogue.

To therefore claim that Mary Co-redemptrix in title and doctrine is in any way contrary to the ecumenical mission of the Church is fundamentally to misunderstand the ecumenical mission of the Church itself. Full Catholic doctrine, including the doctrine of Marian co-redemption, must be included for any true dialogue seeking Christian unity. Sumawona, the purposeful absence of Mary Co-redemptrix in full ecumenical dialogue and in the overall ecumenical mission of the Church would lack integrity and justice for the Catholic ecumenist towards non-Catholic Christians who have presumably, on their part, brought the full teachings of their particular ecclesial body to the tables of dialogue. To return to the Christian admonition of John Paul II: “In the Body of Christ, ‘the way, kanyataanna, and the life’ (Jn.14:6), who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought about at the expense of the truth?" (17)

Therefore calling the Blessed Virgin Mary a “Co-redemptrix” in light of Christian Scripture and Christian Tradition is in no sense contrary to ecumenism, but rather constitutes an essential element of the Christian integrity demanded by true ecumenism, since Marian Co-redemption constitutes a doctrinal teaching of the Catholic Church.

Kanyataanna, if the doctrine of Co-redemptrix presently constitutes a source of confusion for some Christians, connoting for some an image of goddess or other concepts of Marian excesses, then it appears all the more appropriate that a clear articulation of this Marian doctrine be given to brother and sister Christians in ecumenical dialogue. There is also the potential benefit of a formal papal definition providing the greatest possible clarity from the highest possible Catholic authority. In the words of the late John Cardinal O’Connor of New York: "Jelas, definisi papal formal bakal articulated di terminologi tepat saperti nu Kristen sejenna maneh leungit kahariwang maranéhanana anu urang teu ngabedakeun antara adequately asosiasi unik Mary nu mibanda Kristus jeung daya redemptive exercised ku Kristus sorangan. " (18)

Another legitimate ecumenical perspective on Marian co-redemption and her subsequent spiritual motherhood is that as spiritual mother of all peoples, Mary can be a principal means of Christian unity among divided Christian brothers and sisters, rather than being its prime obstacle. Lutheran pastor, Blk. Dr. Charles Dickson, calls on Protestant Christianity to re-examine the documented positive Marian defense and devotion of many of its own founders, as manifested, salaku conto, in the words of Martin Luther in his Commentary on the Magnificat: “May the tender Mother of God herself procure for me the spirit of wisdom profitably and thoroughly to expound this song of hers…May Christ grant us a right understanding…through the intercession and for the sake of His dear Mother Mary….” (19) Luther goes on to call Mary the “workshop of God,” the “Queen of heaven,” and states: “The Virgin Mary means to say simply that her praise will be sung from one generation to another so that there will never be a time when she will not be praised.” (20)

On the role of Mary’s universal spiritual motherhood as an instrument of Christian unity, Dr. Dickson comments further:

In our time, we are still faced with the tragic divisions among the world’s Christians. Masih, standing on the brink of a bright new ecumenical age, Mary as model of catholicity, or universality, becomes even more important. In the course of many centuries from the beginning of the Church, from the time of Mary and the Apostles, the motherhood of the Church was one. This fundamental motherhood cannot vanish, even though divisions occur. Mary, through her motherhood, maintains the universality of Christ’s flock. As the entire Christian community turns to her, the possibility of a new birth, a reconciliation, increases. So Mary, the mother of the Church, is also a source of reconciliation among her scattered and divided children. (21)

Kaweratan 3: Calling the Mother of Jesus, “Co-redemptrix” or her subsequent role as “Mediatrix” implies a role of mediation by someone other than Jesus Christ, but scripture plainly states in 1 Timothy 2:5 that “there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,” and therefore no creature can rightly be a mediator.

The definition of “mediator”—in Greek, mesitis, or “go-between”—is a person who intervenes between two other persons or parties for the goal of uniting or reconciling the parties. Applying this term to Jesus Christ, St. Paul indeed states that there is one mediator between the parties of God and humanity, namely the ‘man Christ Jesus.” No one therefore reaches God the Father except through the one, perfect mediation of Jesus Christ.

But the question still remains, does the one perfect mediation of Jesus Christ prevent or rather provide for others to subordinately participate in the one mediation of Jesus Christ? Istilah sanésna, does the one exclusive mediation of Christ prevent any creature from participating in that one essential mediation? Or does its divine and human perfection allow others to share in his one mediation in a subordinate and secondary way?

Christian Scripture offers examples similar to this question of mediation where Christians are obliged to participate in something that is also “one,” exclusive, and dependent entirely on the person of Jesus Christ.

The one Sonship of Jesus Christ. There is only one true Son of God, Yesus Kristus, who was begotten from God the Father (1 Jn. 1-4). But all Christians are called to participate in the one true sonship of Jesus Christ by becoming “adopted sons” in Christ (cf. 2 Warna. 5:17; 1 Jn. 3:1; Gal. 2:20), as a true sharing in the one sonship of Christ through baptism which allows adopted sons and daughters to also share in the inheritance of the one Son, that of everlasting life.

Living in the One Christ. All Christians are called to share in the “one life” of Jesus Christ, for grace is to participate in the life and the love of Jesus Christ, and through him in the life and love of the Trinity. salaku St. Paul teaches, “it is not I, but Christ who lives in me” (Gal. 2:20) jeung 2 Peter 1:4 calls Christians to become “partakers of the divine nature,” to live in the one Christ, and thus in the life of the Trinity.

The one Priesthood of Jesus Christ. All Christians are also called to share in different degrees in the one priesthood of Jesus Christ. The book of Hebrews identifies Jesus Christ as the one “high priest” (cf. Ngabogaan. 3:1; 4:14; 5:10) who offers the great spiritual sacrifice of himself on Calvary. And yet Scripture calls all Christians, albeit on different levels of participation, ministerial (cf. Meta 14:22) or royal (cf.1 Pet. 2:9), to participate in the one priesthood of Jesus Christ in offering “spiritual sacrifice.” All Christians are instructed to “offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God” (1 Ingon-ingon. 2:5, 2:9).

In all these cases, the New Testament calls Christians to share in that which is one and unique of Jesus Christ, the Alpha and Omega, in true though completely subordinate levels of participation. In reference, terus, to Christ the one Mediator (1 Tim 2:5), we see the same Christian imperative for others to share or participate in the one mediation of Jesus Christ, but in a secondary mediation entirely dependent upon the one perfect mediation of Jesus Christ.

The pivotal christological question must then be asked: Does such subordinate sharing in the one mediation of Christ obscure the one mediation of Christ, or rather does it manifest the glory of his one mediation? This is easily answered by imagining a contemporary world without “adopted sons and daughters in Christ,” without Christians today sharing in the one life of Jesus Christ in grace, or without any Christians offering spiritual sacrifices in the Christian priesthood. Such an absence of human participation would only result in obscuring the one Sonship, the one High Priesthood, and the very Life of grace in Jesus Christ.

The same principle is true regarding participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ in a dependent and subordinate way: the more human participation in the one mediation of Christ, the more the perfection, kakuatan, Nu Maha Suci tina mediasi unik tur dipikabutuh tina Yesus Kristus anu manifested ka dunya.

Christian Kitab Suci komo nawarkeun sababaraha conto mediators manusa Alloh-instituted anu cooperated ku prakarsa ketuhanan di uniting manusa sareng Allah. Para nabi hébat ti Perjanjian Old anu Alloh-ordained mediators antara Mungguhing jeung bangsa Israil, oftentimes néangan keur balik urang Israil nepi ka kasatiaan maranéhna pikeun Mungguhing (cf. Nyaeta. 1; Margi. 1: Ieu. 2). The patriarchs Perjanjian Old, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, jeung Musa, jsb, were at God’s initiative the human mediators of the saving covenant between Yahweh and the people of Israel (cf. Gen 12:2; 15:18; Ex. 17:11). St. Paul identifies Moses’ mediation of the law to the Israelites: ” Why then the law? It was ordained by God through an intermediary” (Gal 3:19-20). And the angels, with hundreds of mediating acts spanning Old and New Testaments, are God’s messengers, who mediate for reconciliation between God and the human family, both before and after the coming of Christ, the one Mediator (cf. Gen. 3:24; Lk. 1:26; Lk. 1:19).

Now regarding Mary, Christian Scripture also clearly reveals the secondary and subordinate participation of the Mother of Jesus in the one mediation of Jesus Christ. At the Annunciation, Mary’s free and active “yes” to the invitation of the angel mediates to the world Jesus Christ, the Redeemer of the world and the Author of all graces (cf. Lk. 1:38). For this unique participation in giving to the Redeemer his body and mediating the Source of all graces to the world, Mary can rightly be called both “Co-redemptrix” and “Mediatrix of all graces” as one who uniquely shares in the one mediation of Jesus Christ.

This unique Marian participation in Christ’s mediation, specific to the Redemption of Jesus Christ, is climaxed at Calvary. At the cross, her spiritual suffering united to the redemptive sacrifice of her Son, as the New Eve with the New Adam, leads to the universal spiritual fruits of the acquisition of the graces of redemption, nu mana, dina waktosna, leads to the gift of spiritual motherhood from the heart of the Crucified Christ to every human heart: "Behold indung anjeun" (Jn. 19:27). The Redeemer’s gift of his own mother as spiritual mother to all humanity leads to the spiritual nourishment by the Mother to her children in the order of grace. This constitutes the distribution of the graces of Calvary by Mary to her spiritual children as Mediatrix of all graces, which perpetually continues her unique sharing in the one saving mediation of Jesus Christ.

John Paul II explains the Catholic understanding of this unique Marian participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ:

Mary entered, in a way all her own, into the one mediation “between God and men” which is the mediation of the man Christ Jesus…. We must say that through this fullness of grace and supernatural life, she was especially pre-disposed to cooperation with Christ, the one Mediator of human salvation. And such cooperation is precisely this mediation subordinated to the mediation of Christ.

In Mary’s case, we have a special and exceptional mediation. (22)

And in his commentary on 1 Timothy 2:5 and Mary’s maternal mediation, John Paul II further states:

We recall that Mary’s mediation is essentially defined by her divine motherhood. Recognition of her role as mediatrix is moreover implicit in the expression “our Mother,” which presents the doctrine of Marian mediation by putting the accent on her motherhood…In proclaiming Christ the one mediator (cf. 1 Tim 2:5-6), téks St. Letter Paul pikeun Timoteus heunteu ngasupkeun wae mediasi paralel séjén, tapi mediasi teu subordinate. Kanyataanna, saméméh emphasizing hiji mediasi ekslusif Kristus, the author urges “that supplications, solat, intercessions and thanksgivings be made for all men” (2:1). Teu solat wangun mediasi? Leres Pisan, nurutkeun St. Paul, nu mediasi unik Kristus anu dimaksud pikeun ngarojong séjénna gumantung, ministerial forms of mediation…In truth, naon mediasi maternal Mary sacara lamun teu kado Rama pikeun manusa? (23)

Therefore we can see Mary’s participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ as unique and unparalleled by any other human or angelic participation, and yet entirely subordinate and dependent upon the one mediation of Jesus Christ. Sapertos kitu, Mary’s motherly mediation manifests the true glory and power of Christ’s mediation like no other. The Marian titles and roles of Co-redemptrix and Mediatrix of all graces (and Advocate as well) do not in any way violate the prohibition of 1 Tim. 2:5 against any parallel, autonomous, or rival mediation, but bespeak a unique and exceptional motherly participation in that one, perfect, and saving mediation of Jesus Christ.

In the words of Anglican Oxford scholar, Dr. John Macquarrie:

The matter (of Marian mediation) cannot be settled by pointing to the danger of exaggeration and abuse, or by appealing to isolated texts of scripture as the verse quoted above from 1 Timothy 2…or by the desire not to say anything that might offend one’s partners in ecumenical dialogue. Unthinking enthusiasts may have elevated Mary’s position to a virtual equality with Christ, but this aberration is not a necessary consequence of recognizing that there may be a truth striving for expression in words like Mediatrix jeung Co-redemptrix.

All responsible theologians would agree that Mary’s co-redemptive role is subordinate and auxiliary to the central role of Christ. Tapi lamun manéhna teu miboga peran saperti, leuwih jelas we ngarti nya, the better. And like other doctrines concerning Mary, it is not only saying something about her, but something more general about the Church as a whole, and even humanity as a whole. (24)

Kaweratan 4: Nélépon Mary a co-redemptrix atawa nelepon Kristen sacara umum "co-redeemers" nyaeta boga manusa aktip milu dina panebusan, nu mangrupakeun Allah atawa, leuwih spésifikna, a "theandric" aktivitas, dilakonan ku jalan Yesus Kristus dina natures Allah jeung manusa nya sorangan, sahingga dilarang ku Kristen. Saperti tangtu ngan nyorong paganism, saprak eta tempat jalma manusa, Mary, minangka bagian ti hiji tindakan redemptive Allah anu ngan Yesus Kristus bisa ngalengkepan.

Ku sababaraha cara, Réspon kana bantahan ieu bisa kapanggih dina bukti foundational sarua ti Christian Kitab Suci anu responds ka bantahan saméméh mana wae partisipasi subordinate atawa manusa di hiji mediasi Yesus Kristus (a mediasi nu ngawengku panebusan). But let us example the specific objection regarding Mary’s active participation in the divine act of Redemption.

The full objection to Mary’s active participation as Co-redemptrix in the redemption accomplished by Jesus Christ has been set out as follows. Aktivitas Theandric nujul kana tindakan ku jalan Yesus Kristus anu keur dilakonan ngaliwatan boh natures nya, Allah jeung manusa. Saprak tindakan panebusan ku jalan Yesus Kristus ieu aktivitas theandric, jeung Mary ieu saukur manusa, lampah nya éta teu theandric sahingga manéhna teu bisa aktip milu dina panebusan. Mangkana, Mary teu bisa bener disebut "co-redemptrix,"Istilah nu artina manehna" meuli deui "umat manusa jeung Redeemer. Atawa kudu waé Kristen disebut "co-redeemers" saprak no mahluk, bisa dipaké dina kagiatan theandric.

Ka alamat pangalusna bantahan ieu, we must return to the essential etymological meaning of the term, “co-redemptrix.” The Latin prefix, cum, means “with,” and not “equal to.” The Latin verb, re(d)-emere hartosna, “to buy back,” and the suffix –trix, meaning “one who does something,” is feminine. Dina bentuk nu lengkep nya saterusna, istilah co-redemptrix nujul kana "Wanoja jeung redeemer nu,"Atawa leuwih hartina, "Wanoja milik anu mundut deui jeung (nu Redeemer)."

As dipaké ku Garéja Katolik, istilah co-redemptrix expresses partisipasi aktif jeung unik Mary di aktivitas Allah jeung manusa panebusan dilakonan ku jalan Yesus Kristus. Deui, radikal gumantung jeung bawahan ka aksi redemptive theandric Yesus Kristus, pisan kasampurnaan panebusan Allah jeung manusa ieu nyadiakeun keur, tinimbang prohibits, rupa tingkat partisipasi manusa bener jeung aktif.

Sedengkeun geus sah pikeun ngabédakeun lampah theandric ti lampah manusa, eta ngalir bertentangan jeung Christian Kitab Suci jeung Tradisi Christian, boh baheula jeung dimekarkeun, to reject active human participation in the theandric activity of Jesus Christ.

Pikeun ilubiung aktif dina aksi theandric teu merlukeun nu participator ogé miboga alam Allah jeung manusa. Such is to misunderstand the distinction between “being” in possessing the essence and specific attribute as part of who you are, from “participation” in babagi in the essence and specific attribute as possessed by another. Janten, Mary salaku mahluk manusa aktip bisa ngabagikeun dina aksi redemptive theandric Yesus Kristus tanpa dirina possessing hakekat sulpat salaku atribut husus. Ku cara nu sarua, sadaya Kristen babagi di alam Allah Yesus Kristus (cf. 2 Ingon-ingon 1:4), tanpa kabawa dewa; ilubiung dina sonship Yesus Kristus (cf. Gal 4:4) tanpa kabawa divinely begotten; share di mediasi Kristus (cf. Gal 3:19, 1 Tim 2:1) tanpa mahluk nu hiji Allah jeung manusa mediator (1 Tim 2:5).

Sakali deui, Christian Kitab Suci attests ka partisipasi aktif singular Mary di nu panebusan Yesus Kristus. Jeung Mary Kang haratis sareng aktif "Fiat" ka ondangan Malaikat Jibril pikeun jadi ibu Yesus, "Kudu eta dipigawé ka kuring nurutkeun kecap Anjeun" (Lk. 1:38), manéhna unik cooperated jeung karya panebusan ku dipaké, méré Redeemer Allah awakna, nu ieu pisan alat panebusan manusa. Nu nubuat of Simeon mangka misi co-redemptive unparalleled Maryam dina rugbi langsung jeung putra Redeemer nya dina hiji karya ngahiji maranéhna panebusan, “and a sword shall pierce your own soul, teuing " (Lk. 2:34-5). Jeung klimaks peran Mary salaku Co-redemptrix jeung jeung kaayaan Putra Allah nya lumangsung di suku Palang, mana sangsara total jantung indungna téh obediently ngahiji ka sangsara jantung Putra di pemenuhan Allah pasti Bapa panebusan: "Sampéan, behold putra Anjeun!'Saterusna cenah ka murid nu, 'Behold, indung anjeun!" (Jn. 19:27).

Para sastrawan Christian pangheubeulna jeung founding Garéja ngajelaskeun partisipasi Marian jeung jeung dina Kristus dina "meuli deui" kulawarga manusa ti perbudakan setan jeung dosa di model teologis munggaran Mary salaku "New Hawa." Ieu panulis kuna attested ka Kahijian panebusan ku Kristus jeung co-panebusan ku Mary ku ucap anu sakumaha Hawa, kahiji "basa nu hirup"(Gen. 3:20) ieu hiji ngabalukarkeun instrumental jeung Adam, Kangjeng ras manusa di leungitna rahmat keur sakabeh umat manusa, jadi teuing Mary, nu "New Hawa" ieu hiji ngabalukarkeun instrumental jeung Isa Al Masih, nu "New Adam" (cf. 1 Warna. 15: 45-48, 20-25), di restorasi of rahmat ka sakabeh umat manusa.

Dina kalimah St.. Irenaeus: "Ngan salaku Hawa, pamajikan Adam, tacan masih parawan, jadi ku hal nu henteu patuh nya anu ngabalukarkeun maot keur dirina jeung ras manusa sakabeh, jadi Mary, oge, espoused yet a virgin, Mary… became by her obedience the cause of salvation for herself and the whole human race.” (25)

Ajaran eksplisit partisipasi aktif Mary Kang jeung Isa Al Masih di redeeming atawa "meuli deui" umat manusa ti perbudakan setan jeung dosa anu hadir di sakuliah awal jeung Tradisi saterusna Christian, salaku conto:

Ngaliwatan Mary, we “are redeemed from the tyranny of the devil.” (Modestus Yerusalem, 7abad th); (26)

Hail thou, through whom we are redeemed from the curse (St John Damascene, 8abad th)"; (27)

Through her, man was redeemed (St. Bernard of Clairvaux, 12abad th); (28)

That woman (nyaéta Hawa), drove urang kaluar ti Paradise jeung dijual ka urang; tapi ieu hiji (Mary) brought us back again and bought us; (29)

Just as they (Adam and Eve) were the destroyers of the human race, so these (Jesus Christ and Mary) were its repairers; (30)

Manehna (Mary) also merited reconciliation for the entire human race; (31)

She paid the price (of redemption) as a woman brave and loving—namely when Christ suffered on the cross to pay that price in order to purge and wash and redeem us, Nu Maha Agung Virgin éta hadir, accepting and agreeing with the divine will (St. Bonaventure, 13abad th); (32)

To her alone was given this privilege, namely a communication in the Passion…and in order to make her a sharer in the benefit of Redemption, Manéhna willed manéhna jadi sharer dina hukuman Passion nu, in so far as she might become the mother of all through re-creation…(St. Albert the Great (atawa pseudo-Albert), 13abad th); (33)

God accepted her oblation as a pleasing sacrifice for the utility and salvation of the whole human race…He foretold to thee (Mary) sagala nafsu thy whereby manéhna baris nyieun thee a sharer sadaya of merits jeung afflictions nya, and thou would co-operate with him in the restoration of men to salvation (John Panel, 14abad th); (34)

…as one suffering with the Redeemer, for the captive sinner,
Co-redemptrix would you be (14abad th). (35)

The Christian teaching on Co-redemptrix continues consistently from the middle ages on into the modern period, (36) as evidenced in this representative selection of examples:

Saints and doctors have united in calling our Blessed Lady co-redemptrix of the world. There is no question of the lawfulness of using such language, because there is overwhelming authority for it… (Faber, 19abad th); (37)

We think of all the other extraordinary merits, by which she shared with her Son Jesus in the redemption of mankind….She was not only present at the mysteries of the Redemption, but was also involved with them (Paus Leo XIII, 19abad th); (38)

To such extent did she suffer and almost die with her suffering and dying Son; to such extent did she surrender her maternal rights over her Son for man’s salvation, and immolated Him—insofar as she could—in order to appease the justice of God, that we may rightly say she redeemed the human race together with Christ (Paus Benedict XV, 20abad th); (39)

Ti alam karyana Redeemer nu halah geus pakait ibu-Na jeung karyana. Kusabab ieu, kami nu dipake nya handapeun judul Co-redemptrix (Paus Pius XI, 20abad th); (40)

Ku kituna Nu Maha Agung Virgin maju dina ibadah haji nya iman, jeung faithfully persevered dina rugbi jeung Putra nya ka salib, di mana baé ngadeg, dina ngajaga jeung rencana Allah, enduring jeung dirina ngan begotten Putra intensitas sangsara nya, patali dirina jeung kurban di jantung indungna Kang, jeung lovingly consenting ka immolation hiji mangsa ieu nu lahir nya " (Déwan Vatikan kadua); (41)

Crucified spiritually with her crucified Son (cf. Gal. 2:20), she contemplated with heroic love the death of her God….her role as Co-redemptrix did not cease with the glorification of her Son (Paus John Paul II, 1985); (42)

Kolaborasi Kristen di kasalametan lumangsung sanggeus kajadian Calvary, whose fruits they endeavor to spread through prayer and sacrifice. Mary instead co-operated during the event itself and in the role as mother; thus her co-operation embraces the whole of Christ’s saving work. Manéhna sorangan ieu pakait cara ieu jeung kurban redemptive nu merited kasalametan umat manusa (Paus John Paul II, 1997). (43)

The teaching of Christian Tradition upon Mary’s unique co-redemptive role continues into the third millennium with this recent papal teaching of John Paul II, where Mary’s intimate participation in the death of her Son at Calvary is compared with the Old Testament sacrificial offering made by Abraham (likewise of his own son, offered in an obedience of faith to God):

The summit of this earthly pilgrimage of faith is Golgotha where Mary intimately lives the paschal mystery of her Son: moved in a certain sense as a mother in the death of her Son, and opens herself to the “resurrection” with a new maternity in relation to the Church (cf. Jn. 19:25-27). Tuh, on Calvary, Mary pangalaman peuting iman, similar to that of Abraham on Mount Moriah …. (44)

Deui, tanpa pertanyaan ti kagumantungan total jeung radikal partisipasi Mary di panebusan kana karya Allah jeung merits Isa Al Masih, Church fathers and doctors, babarengan jeung engke jeung kontemporer Tradisi Christian, ulah ragu ngajarkeun partisipasi aktip Wanoja milik, Mary with Jesus Christ in the theandric “buying back” or redeeming of humanity from the slavery of Satan and sin. Sharing ieu Marian di panebusan ngagambarkeun ajar Christian kuna nu salaku umat manusa nu leungit atawa "dijual" ku manusa jeung hiji awewe, tah ieu Allah bakal umat manusa nu bakal ditebus atawa "meuli deui" ku Man jeung awewe.

In what way then does Mary’s participation as Co-redemptrix in human differ from the general call of Christians to participate in the redemption of Jesus Christ?

Indeed Christian Scripture calls all Christians to “make up what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ for the sake of his body, nu Garéja " (Col. 1:24). This teaching of St. Paul is not speaking of a participation of all Christians in the historical and universal redemption on Calvary where Jesus Christ acquired the graces of Redemption by his passion and death (sometimes theologically referred to as objective redemption. If so, ieu salah bakal infer nu hal ieu "kurang" dina sufferings redemptive bersejarah jeung concurring nyimpen merits Yesus Kristus, nu aya di sorangan taya watesan tur inexhaustible.

Rada, St. Pangajaran Paul Kang nujul kana imperatif Christian ngaliwatan co-operasi bébas, solat, jeung kurban pikeun ilubiung dina siaran jeung sebaran graces wates kaala ku jalan Yesus Kristus dina Calvary ka kulawarga manusa (theologically referred to as panebusan subjektif. Just as every human heart must actively respond in freedom to the saving grace of Jesus Christ for their own personal, panebusan subjektif, jadi teuing Kristen disebut milu aktip dina siaran jeung sebaran graces panebusan keur batur ogé, jeung, kucara kieu, ka "nyieun up" naon St. Paul darurat "kurang" dina sufferings Kristus demi awak Kristus. Dina hal ieu, sadaya Kristen bener milu dina panebusan subjektif, this saving distribution of grace as “God’s co-workers” (1Warna. 3:9) atawa "co-redeemers" make ekspresi popes abad ka-20. (45)

Partisipasi redemptive Mary Kang beda telepon Christian ieu umum pikeun ilubiung dina sebaran nyimpen graces di individual jeung pribadi panebusan subjektif dina kituna sajauh manéhna sorangan ogé milu, sakali deui subordinately jeung sagemblengna silih gumantung nu Redeemer, dina tujuan, sajarah jeung universal panebusan ogé, salaku Hawa New jeung jeung di handapeun Adam New. Ieu nu jadi sabab pangna judul Co-redemptrix di tempat mimiti nujul sacara éksklusif ka Mary. As once again articulated by John Paul II in an 1997 alamat:

Kolaborasi Kristen di kasalametan lumangsung sanggeus kajadian Calvary, whose fruits they endeavor to spread through prayer and sacrifice. Mary instead co-operated during the event itself and in the role as mother; thus her co-operation embraces the whole of Christ’s saving work. Manéhna sorangan ieu pakait cara ieu jeung kurban redemptive nu merited kasalametan umat manusa. (46)

Janten, the title and truth of Mary Co-redemptrix as seen in Christian Scripture and Christian Tradition underscores the legitimacy and spiritual fruitfulness for active human participation in the theandric redemptive action of Jesus Christ. For Mary Co-redemptrix, this participation in redemption constitutes a participation in both acquisition and distribution of redemptive graces; and for all other Christians a participation in the distribution of redemptive graces as co-redeemers in Christ. As summarized by Vatican theologian Jean Galot in the official Vatican publication, L'Osservatore Romano:

The title (Co-redemptrix) is criticized because it would suggest an equality between Mary and Christ. The criticism has no foundation…Co-redemption implies a subordination to the redemptive work of Christ, because it is only a cooperation and not an independent or parallel work. Hence any equality with Christ is excluded…The word “co-redemption,” which means “cooperation in redemption,"Bisa dilarapkeun pikeun unggal Kristen jeung ka sakabeh Garéja. St. Paul nyerat: ‘We are God’s co-workers’ (1 Warna. 3:9). (47)

Kaweratan 5: Gagasan Mary salaku Co-redemptrix jeung ajaran Marian co-panebusan nyaeta kapercayaan alim dicekel ku sababaraha Katolik devotional, tapi teu pangajaran doctrinal Garéja Katolik. Hal ieu kapanggih ngan dina teks papal minor sarta ngayakeun resmina diajar ku Magisterium nu, atawa anu doctrinally hadir dina ajaran Déwan Vatikan Kadua.

Keur anggota iman Katolik, pertanyaan naha posisi teologis dibikeun constitutes an pangajaran doctrinal otentik ti Garéja atawa teu geus dasarna manifested ku ayana nya (atawa kakurangan, nu tujuanana) dina ajaran ti otoritas Garéja diakuan. Otoritas pangajaran resmi Garéja Katolik, atawa "Magisterium,"Ngawengku pangajaran resmi nu paus jeung uskup di union jeung paus dina kaayaan hidayah umum Roh Suci. (48)

Although there exists a certain hierarchy amidst the expressions of official Catholic teaching authority, from the defined dogma of an ecumenical council or papal ex cathedra infallible statement, to general ecumenical council doctrinal teaching, to encyclical letters, to more general papal teachings contained in papal addresses, there at the same time remains the general directive for the Catholic faithful that is stated by the Second Vatican Council of the need for a religious assent of mind and heart to the manifest mind of the pope, even when he is not speaking infallibly. (49) And certainly all doctrinal teachings from ecumenical councils, papal encyclicals, or consistently repeated papal teachings would constitute authentic doctrinal teachings of the Catholic Church.

Let us now apply this criteria for official Catholic doctrine to the question of the doctrinal status of Marian co-redemption.

From the basis of the doctrinal teachings of the Second Vatican Council alone, the certainty of the doctrinal status of Marian co-redemption is unquestionable. Vatican II repeatedly teaches Mary’s unique participation in the redemption of Jesus Christ:

…She devoted herself totally, as handmaid of the Lord, ka jalma tur karya Putra dirina, sahandapeun tur kalawan anjeunna, porsi nu misteri tina panebusan, ku rahmat Alloh swt. Rightly, janten, the founding tempo Mary teu saukur salaku passively aktipitas ku Allah, tapi kalawan bébas cooperating dina karya kasalametan manusa ngaliwatan iman jeung taqwa. (50)

Jeung saterusna:

Ku kituna Nu Maha Agung Virgin maju dina ibadah haji nya iman, jeung faithfully persevered dina rugbi jeung Putra nya ka salib, di mana baé ngadeg, dina ngajaga jeung rencana Allah, enduring jeung dirina ngan begotten Putra intensitas sangsara nya, patali dirina jeung kurban di jantung indungna Kang, jeung lovingly consenting ka immolation hiji mangsa ieu nu lahir nya. (51)

Jeung saterusna ku Déwan:

Manéhna teu katimu, dibawa mudik, jeung nu kaparaban Kristus, manéhna disajikan Anjeunna ka Rama di Bait, babarengan sangsara Putra nya jadi Manéhna maot disalib. Janten, cara wholly singular manéhna cooperated ku taqwa nya, kapercayaan, harepan, jeung ngaduruk zakat dina karya nu Juru Salamet di malikkeun hirup gaib ka jiwa. Dumasar kana alesan ieu manéhna hiji basa ka urang dina raraga rahmat. (52)

Theologian Vatikan, Rajékan. Jean Galot, S.J., confirms status doctrinal resmi Marian co-panebusan di cahaya pangajaran Vatikan II:

Tanpa ngagunakeun istilah "co-redemptrix,"Déwan jelas enunciated doktrin nu: a gawé babarengan hiji jenis unik, a gawé babarengan maternal dina kahirupan jeung karya nu Juru Salamet, anu ngahontal puncak taun partisipasi dina kurban Calvary, jeung nu mihak ka arah kahirupan gaib jiwa ... (53)

Jeung salaku articulated ku Galot dina koran resmi Vatikan, L'Osservatore Romano: "The Déwan Vatikan Kadua, nu dihindari employing judul didebat ieu (Co-redemptrix), nevertheless affirmed with vigor the doctrine it implies…” (54)

Saluareun ayana doctrinal tangtu taun Vatikan II, Marian co-redemption, babarengan jeung pamakéan eksplisit tina judul co-redemptrix, is a repeated papal teaching spanning the 19th to the 21st century, which again assures its authentic doctrinal status within the Church. Marian co-redemption is repeatedly taught in numerous papal encyclicals and general teachings, as reflected in the following representative citations of official papal teachings: (55)

Leo XIII: “”When Mary offered herself completely to God together with her Son in the temple, she was already sharing with Him the painful atonement on behalf of the human race. Ieu tangtu, janten, manéhna ngalaman dina pisan bojong jiwa nya jeung sufferings paling pait nya jeung jeung torments His. Tungtungna, ieu saméméh panon Mary yén kurban Illahi nu manéhna geus lahir jeung dipupuk korban, was to be finished…we see that there stood by the Cross of Jesus His Mother, anu di hiji kaajaiban amal, so that we might receive us as her sons, rela ditawarkeun Anjeunna nepi ka kaadilan Allah, dying jeung Anjeunna di jantung nya, pierced jeung pedang duka. " (56)

St. Pius X: "Owing ka union of sangsara jeung tujuan nu geus aya di antara Kristus jeung Mary, manéhna merited jadi paling worthily nu Reparatrix of dunya leungit, jeung alesan ieu, the dispenser of all the favors which Jesus acquired for us by His death and His blood… and because she was chosen by Christ to be His partner in the work of salvation, she merits for us de akal as they say, that which Christ merits for us de condigno…” (57)

Benedict XV: "Kanyataan nu manéhna jeung Putra nya, disalib jeung dying, ieu di atos jeung rencana Allah. Pikeun luas saperti teu manéhna nyerah hak maternal nya over Putra nya kasalametan manusa, and immolated Him—in so far as she could—in order to appease the justice of God, urang bisa rightly nyebutkeun manéhna ditebus ras manusa bareng jeung Al Masih. " (58)

Pius XI: "O Ibu cinta jeung rahmat anu, lamun Putra thy sweetest ieu consummating nu panebusan tina ras manusa dina altar tina salib, teu nangtung gigireun Anjeunna, suffering with Him as a Co-redemptrix…preserve in us, urang beseech thee, sarta nambahan poé ku poé buah mulia panebusan Na jeung karep indungna. " (59)

Pius XII: "Bener ieu manéhna anu, sok paling intimately ngahiji jeung Putra nya, kawas Hawa New, ditawarkeun ka Anjeunna dina Golgota ka Rama abadi, bareng jeung kurban hak jeung asih maternal nya, atas nama kabéh barudak Adam, shamed by the later’s shameful fall.” (60)

John Paul II: "Dina dirina, loba jeung sengit sufferings nya amassed di saperti mangrupakeun cara interconnected anu maranéhanana nya éta teu ngan hiji bukti iman unshakable nya, but also a contribution to the redemption of all….It was on Calvary that Mary’s suffering, gigireun sangsara Yesus, nepi an inténsitas nu bisa boro jadi imagined ti hiji titik manusa pandang, tapi nu éta mysteriously jeung supernaturally fruitful pikeun panebusan di dunya. Pisan nya of Calvary jeung ngadeg nya di suku salib bareng jeung murid tercinta nya éta hiji nurun husus sharing di pati redeeming of Putra nya. " (61)

John Paul II: "Disalib rohani jeung putra disalib nya (cf. Gal. 2:20), manéhna contemplated with love heroik pupusna Gusti nya, she “lovingly consented to the immolation of this victim which she herself had brought forth”(Cahaya, 58)”…In fact at Calvary she united herself with the sacrifice of her Son which led to the foundation of the Church….In fact, Mary’s role as Co-redemptrix did not cease with the glorification of her Son.” (62)

Urang tempo mangka boh ti kriteria pangajaran déwan ecumenical jeung ti pangajaran papal ulangan ngaliwatan instruksi encyclical jeung umum, ajar Marian co-panebusan tanpa pertanyaan constitutes an doktrin otentik aya dina ajaran nulis of Magisterium nu.

It is sometimes objected that the specific title, Co-redemptrix only appears in papal teachings of lesser importance, sahingga teu ngagambarkeun ajaran doctrinal Katolik. This would be to artificially separate the title, Co-redemptrix from the theological doctrine of co-redemption, jeung nu judulna téh dasarna dikaitkeun tur diturunkeun tina. Judul nujul kana fungsi spiritual nu Mary ngalakukeun migawé unik nya di panebusan, sahingga misah judul ti doktrin anu ka inappropriately jeung pibahyaeun megatkeun judul ti yayasan doctrinal nya ngungkabkeun jeung authoritatively diajar. Dina jumlah, katangtuan doctrinal of Marian co-panebusan ngajamin katangtuan doctrinal Maryam Co-redemptrix.

Sumawona, the repeated papal use of the Co-redemptrix title by the present pope on at least six separate occasions (63) kudu sorangan, pikeun Katolik satia, langsung nyabut mana wae pertanyaan tina legitimasi doctrinal tina judul Co-redemptrix (naha pribadi atawa prudentially leuwih hade ka individual Katolik atawa teu). Lest, di sisi anu sanésna, the Catholic is to conclude contrarily that Pope John Paul II has repeatedly used a Marian title which is in itself doctrinally erroneous, theologically unsound, atawa intrinsically tanpa fondasi doctrinal Christian. This appears foreign to the fullest sense of the religious assent of mind and will to be given the manifest mind of the pope to non- infallible papal teachings. (64)

Dina jumlah, dina cahaya boh conciliar jeung ajaran papal ulangan, Marian Co-redemption and it corresponding title, Mary Co-redemptrix, constitutes an pangajaran doctrinal resmi Garéja nu.

Kaweratan 6: Dina level teologis leuwih spekulatif, it appears that Mary cannot participate in the acquisition of the graces of redemption—or “objective redemption”—as the Co-redemptrix when she herself needed to be redeemed. Lamun manéhna teu gawé di panebusan obyektif, it is because without her, objective redemption has not been accomplished. Tapi lamun panebusan obyektif geus memang teu acan dilakonan, mangka manéhna dirina teu bisa ngabantuan ti dinya pribadi. Ieu bakal narima anu di waktu nu sami panebusan obyektif aya dina tindakan keur dilakonan jeung geus kungsi dilakonan, nu bakal kontradiksi a.

Kontradiksi nu katempo ieu dileungitkeun jeung pamahaman ditangtoskeun kumaha Mary narima naon anu disebut "panebusan pangawét" dina cahaya tina merits foreseen Yesus Kristus dina salib.

Memang bener anu Mary diperlukeun pikeun "ditebus" guna milu aktip dina prosés panebusan salaku pasangan sinless, nu Hawa New, jeung jeung kaayaan Yesus Kristus, Adam New. To have original sin or its effects would not allow Mary to be completely united with the Redeemer and in “enmity” or complete opposition from Satan and his seed of sin and its effects (cf. Gen. 3:15) dina prosés redeeming of "meuli deui" kulawarga manusa ti Iblis tur malikkeun rahmat ka umat manusa. Sakur dosa dina bagian Mary Kang bakal atribut ka nya a "double-agénsi,"Dina keur di sababaraha bagian ngahiji boh ka Redeemer jeung Iblis. Ku alatan éta Mary, salaku putri Adam sareng Hawa ku kahadean of umat manusa nya, diperlukeun pikeun ditebus dina bentuk keur dilestarikan tina dosa jeung pangaruh nya guna rightly ngalakukeun tugas Co-redemptrix jeung Redeemer dina prosés universal panebusan obyektif.

Dina harti papal Maryam Kang suci beresih konsépsi ku bl. Paus Pius IX di 1854, eta nyebutkeun yen Mary, ti instan munggaran konsépsi nya ieu dibebaskeun tina dosa asli jeung sagala pangaruh nya "dina panempoan nu merits Yesus Kristus." (65) Ieu nujul kana luhur atawa "leuwih luhur manner" nu Mary ieu ditebus, saluareun sadaya barudak séjénna Adam sareng Hawa. Dina panebusan Mary Kang, manéhna teu boga sangsara pangalaman dosa asli jeung pangaruh nya, tapi rada ngaliwatan merits foreseen Yesus Kristus di Calvary, ieu dilestarikan ti mana wae pangalaman atawa pangaruh dosa asli, sarta kukituna ditebus ku cara di luhur leuwih luhur (jeung akibatna, kusabab ieu, owes leuwih nyimpen panebusan Putra Kang nya tinimbang mahluk ditebus séjén).

Kumaha saterusna sacara husus anu panebusan Mary di bentuk leuwih luhur pelestarian tina dosa enacted kituna pikeun ngidinan nya mun baheula milu dina panebusan obyektif? Ieu cara leuwih luhur panebusan lumangsung di Calvary di kanyataan yen niat kahiji kurban redemptive Yesus Kristus, (66) nurutkeun rencana providential Bapa, ieu ka redeem indungna sorangan, (dilakonan di panempoan nu panebusan jeung co-panebusan nu bakal tuluy tebusan ti Iblis jeung dosa sesa kulawarga manusa).

Niat kahiji ieu nu Redeemer ka redeem Mary aya dina sorangan manifestasi sejen ragam luhur jeung leuwih luhur panebusan Mary Kang. Nu graces niat kahiji ieu nu Redeemer anu saterusna diterapkeun dina Mary di momen konsépsi suci beresih nya, allowing her then to become the sinless Co-redemptrix, nu sajarah New Hawa, dina panebusan bersejarah obyektif Yesus Kristus di Calvary. Yesus Kristus mimiti ditebus indungna sorangan (applied to her at the moment of her conception, preserving nya tina dosa) terus jeung nya aktif co-panebusan sesa umat manusa di Calvary.

Ku alatan éta teu aya kontradiksi di peran bersejarah di Co-redemptrix dina panebusan obyektif di Calvary jeung Mary Kang kudu pribadi sorangan jeung kuitansi tina graces panebusan. Dina kahadean of konsépsi suci beresih nya, (graces redemptive diterapkeun dina dirina di konsépsi di panempoan nu merits hareup Yesus Kristus di Calvary), jeung salaku niat kahiji kurban redemptive Yesus Kristus, Mary ieu saterusna bisa milu unik di panebusan bersejarah tina sesa umat manusa jeung nya Redeemer Putra. As rajékan. Galot oge summarizes:

Nu niat kahiji kurban redemptive ieu patali, nurutkeun rencana Allah, jeung tebusan Maryam, accomplished in view of our ransom…Thus, bari manéhna patali dina kurban Calvary, Mary geus benefited, ti payun, ti bungbuahan kurban jeung acted dina kapasitas hiji makhluk ransomed. Tapi manéhna bener cooperated dina panebusan obyektif, di akuisisi nu graces kasalametan pikeun sakabéh umat manusa. Panebusan nya ieu dibeuli saméméh nu manusa séjén. Mary ieu ransomed ngan ku Kristus, jadi umat manusa anu bisa ransomed jeung kolaborasi indungna ...

Ku kituna teu aya kontradiksi: Marian co-panebusan ngakibatkeun nu panebusan foreseen Maryam, tapi teu minuhan foreseen tina panebusan tina umat manusa; eta expresses kaayaan unik ibu anu, bari sanggeus narima rahmat singular ti Putra nya sorangan, cooperates jeung Anjeunna dina attainment kasalametan pikeun sadaya. (67)

Still other theological schools prefer to distinguish the general notion of redemption into the two categories of “preservation” and “ransoming.” Since Mary was never technically under the slavery of Satan’s bondage since she never experienced sin, then the term “ransom” is less accurate for her, sabab infers balik batur ti perbudakan saméméhna. Hence the term, “preservation” or preservative redemption may more accurately distinguish the uniqueness of Mary’s need to be redeemed by Christ first and as a daughter of Adam and Eve, tapi teu infer nu manéhna kungsi dina perbudakan Iblis Kang dosa, illustrative bentuk luhur nya panebusan bahan pangawét jeung partisipasi saterusna nya di bener "ransoming" tina sesa umat manusa. (68)

Teu niat primordial ieu Yesus Kristus ka redeem indungna terus, salaku niat saterusna, sesa umat manusa ngalanggar "one kurban" Isa Al Masih ditawarkeun keur sakabeh salaku dibahas di Ibrani (cf Heb. 10:10)? Teu, salaku panebusan tetep hiji, sanajan niat sarta aplikasi efficacious nu twofold. Hiji kurban redemptive Yesus Kristus di Calvary teu tacan mangrupakeun "dua redemptions,"Tapi hiji panebusan luhur jeung dua aplikasi hemat: aplikasi kahiji effecting nu suci beresih konsepsi Mary sahingga nyiapkeun nya jadi Co-redemptrix migawé nya di panebusan obyektif; aplikasi kadua effecting nu panebusan kulawarga manusa dilakonan jeung Co-redemptrix. (69)

Dina homily nya dina Feast of suci beresih konsépsi di katedral di Krakow, Karol Cardinal Wojtyla (nu pontiff hadir) oge diringkeskeun bebeneran Marian ieu: “In order to be the Co-redemptrix, manéhna kahiji suci beresih konsépsi. " (70)

Kaweratan 7: While granting the legitimacy of Mary Co-redemptrix and its corresponding doctrine of co-redemption, aya no alesan badag atawa bungbuahan keur harti papal nya dina waktu ieu, jeung dina kanyataanana harti saperti bakal ngabalukarkeun division serius dina Garéja.

Kudu dinyatakeun ti outset nu posisi saperti ngeunaan definisi papal poténsial Maryam Co-redemptrix geus tangtu hiji posisi ditarima ku anggota satia Garéja Katolik. Notwithstanding, hayu urang neuleuman, dina format kasimpulan singket, sababaraha loba alesan kontemporer geuwat keur ditawarkeun dina dukungan nu bungbuahan positif appropriateness jeung consequent hiji harti papal formal Maryam Co-redemptrix.

1. Kajelasan teologis Greater ka wewengkon salah paham hadir.

Lamun bl. Pius IX digedékeun doktrin Garéja nu suci beresih konsépsi ka tingkat dogma dina 1854, he nyatakeun yén bungbuahan harti saperti bakal ka "dibawa ka kasampurnaan" doktrin nu, nambahan kajelasan jeung cahaya leuwih gede keur kapentingan sakumna:

Garéja labors hésé Polandia ajaran saméméhna, dibawa ka kasampurnaan rumusan maranéhna cara saperti nu kasebut dogmas kolot of doktrin sawarga narima bukti, cahaya, pabedaan, bari tetep fullness maranéhna, integritas maranéhna, karakter sorangan ... (71)

Dina cahaya nu kabingungan kontemporer badag ngeunaan persis naon hartina Garéja Katolik nepikeun di doktrin Marian co-panebusan (as evidenced by the recent The New York Times piece and its reaction), nya tangtu rasana paling mangpaat boga pernyataan tepat, scripturally ngarumuskeun dina cahaya Tradisi Christian, ti otoritas pangluhurna Garéja Katolik, mastikeun precision jeung kaaslian doctrinal nya.

2. Mangpaat Ecumenical dina éksprési Katolik otentik dialog doctrinal

Tinimbang persepsi nya salaku mahluk ngalawan imperatif gawe pikeun persatuan Christian, a rumusan tepat naon Katolik percaya ngeunaan Mary Co-redemptrix, jeung di waktu nu sami naon henteu percaya (i.e., sarua jeung Yesus Kristus, sulpat Maryam, jsb) ngan baris ngawula dialog ecumenical otentik dumasar kana integritas jeung bebeneran salaku naon geus pangajaran doctrinal Katolik.

Ahir Cardinal John O'Connor of New York disebut calon buah ecumenical ieu dina surat nya dukungan for teu ngartikeun papal Maryam Co-redemptrix:

jelas, a formal papal definition would be articulated in such precise terminology that other Christians would lose their anxiety that we do not distinguish adequately between Mary’s unique association with Christ and the redemptive power exercised by Christ alone. (72)

Harti saperti bakal mantuan nyingkahan kacenderungan bahaya nampilkeun dina dialog ecumenical ngan maranéhanana unsur doctrinal Kristen babagi babarengan, tinimbang aspék hésé tapi perlu of babagi jalma unsur doctrinal Kristen teu tahan dina ilahar. Integritas saperti di tukeur doctrinal ecumenical nyaéta kritis diperlukeun dina pamustunganana nepi ka di mana wae persatuan Christian bener.

3. Perkembangan ditangtoskeun tina doktrin Marian

Nu geus aya opat Marian Dogmas, nu keibuan Allah (431), nu Perpetual Virginity (649), nu suci beresih konsépsi (1854), jeung Asumsi nu (1950), sadaya nungkulan atribut atawa qualities hirup earthly Mary Kang, but none directly refer to the Mother of Jesus in relation to the human family.

Hal ieu kauninga sajarahna anu ngan hiji bulan handap definisi papal Maryam Kang Asumsi dina November 1950, nu Mariological Kongrés International sacara resmi petitioned Paus Pius XII for teu ngartikeun papal of mediasi universal Mary jadi progression logis handap definisi Asumsi nu. (73)

Sanggeus hirup awal jeung atribut Maryam nampi séwang "perfections of doktrin" maranéhna pedaran solemn dogmatis, jadi teuing nya tangtu rasana hade nu prerogative sawarga Mary salaku ibu spiritual sadaya bangsa di urutan rahmat, inklusif tur diadegkeun kana co-panebusan unik nya, oge bakal narima perfecting doctrinal nya dina bentuk hiji harti dogmatis.

4. Negeskeun of harkat jalmi manusa jeung kabebasan manusa

Salah sahiji filsuf personalist kontemporer anjog di dunya (ti sakola filosofis fokus kana martabat jalmi manusa), Professor Dr. Josef Seifert, (74) argues that a dogma of Mary Co-redemptrix would constitute a supreme confirmation of the dignity and freedom the human person:

A dogma nu ngumumkeun Mary Co-redemptrix bakal méré saksi unik ka kabebasan pinuh ku jalmi manusa jeung ka respect Allah pikeun kabebasan manusa. Dogma ieu bakal ngakuan dina jalan pamungkas nu kaputusan bebas tina jalmi manusa Maryam, who was not even to become the Mother of God without her free fiat—a decision which was not exclusively caused by divine grace but was also the fruit of her own personal choice—was necessary for our salvation, atawa maén bagian indispensable dina jalan beton panebusan urang dipilih ku Allah.

Dina umur urang, nu filsafat personalist dikembangkeun leuwih deeply ti kungsi saméméh dina sajarah umat manusa, jeung nu di waktu nu sami mengerikan ideologi anti-personalist kakuasaan, dogma kitu bakal rightfully katarima salaku konfirmasi pang luhur tina harkat jalmi manusa.

Dina sagala ieu mah tangtu ningali nilai krusial jeung significance tina dogma ieu keur diproklamasikeun dina waktu urang nu duanana a kasadaran anyar martabat pribadi jengkar jeung nu jalma geus leuwih dihina di action sareng nampik dina teori ti kungsi saméméh. (75)

5. Re-negeskeun of harkat awewe

Dina sawala kontemporer of feminisme jeung alam awéwé, the papal proclamation of Mary Co-redemptrix would underscore what could properly identified as God’s radical love and respect for woman. Nurutkeun Christian Kitab Suci, rencana providential sakabéh Allah Rama ka ngirim Putra-Na pikeun panebusan di dunya ieu kontingen kana nu Fiat bebas tina hiji awewe (Cf. Lk 1:38; Gal 4:4). What “trust’ God the Father has in woman in the person of Mary that He would make the coming of the Redeemer of the entire human family conditional upon this woman’s free consent.

As Dr. Seifert deui nunjuk kaluar:

This new declaration of the Traditional doctrine would therefore show anew a perpetual truth about Mary and about woman, a bebeneran nu sok diayakeun ku Garéja tapi kungsi nyatakeun jelas jeung indubitably: the greatest deed of God’s gracious love—the Redemption of mankind and our salvation—is in some real sense also the consequence of a free act of a woman and thus also the gift of a woman to humanity. (76)

Jeung saterusna:

Dogma ieu bakal nganyatakeun harkat action awéwé Kang nu ngaleuwihan di activeness, sublimity jeung efektivitas nu soleh sadaya mahluk jeung lalaki murni: sakabéh raja jeung politisi, pamikir, élmuwan, filsuf, seniman jeung pengrajin ti awal dunya nepi ka ahir .... (77)

Wahyu tangtu pinuh jeung peran Mary Co-redemptrix bisa kukituna ditawar salaku yayasan exemplary for leuwih hade pamahaman kontribusi unik feminisme ka umat manusa jeung, sapertos kitu, constitute dasar anthropological foundational pikeun otentik feminisme Christian.

6. Re-réa nu kudu Christian ka gawé jeung rahmat Allah pikeun kasalametan

Anglican Oxford scholar, Dr. John Macquarrie, states that the role of Mary Co-redemptrix provides a concrete expression of the human necessity to freely and actively cooperate with God’s grace for salvation. He moreover sees the Christian truth of Mary Co-redemptrix as a corrective for theologies that remove such dignity to the person, jeung di konsekuensi, nunda mudik hiji gambar teu pikaresepeun Kristen sorangan. As disintésis ku Dr. Macquarrie di rujukan extended ieu:

Dina sababaraha wangun pangajaran, eta komo percaya yén manusa bisa disalametkeun tanpa komo nyaho kasalametan nu ieu nyokot tempat. Geus sagala dicokot tempat geus ngaliwatan sakali keur sakabéhna karya redeeming Kristus. Hal ieu hiji kanyataan, whether anyone recognizes it or not…For Barth, nu (subyektip) Panebusan nyaeta polah obyektif murni, geus réngsé 'luar urang, tanpa urang, even against us…Redemption is not, dina nempo, mun dianggap salaku prosés nu lumangsung di mana urang geus sababaraha bagian, tapi tindakan Allah sakali keur sakabéhna lila saméméh kami lahir ...

Ayeuna lamun hiji conceded point Barth Kang, mangka Jigana hiji tangtu kudu nyebutkeun yén anjeunna memang dijelaskeun manusa kawas domba atawa sapi atawa komo marionettes, mahluk teu salaku unik anu sipatna, spiritual beings made in the image of God and entrusted with a measure of freedom and responsibility…It is understandable that that Feuerbach, Marx, Nietzsche jeung galaksi sakabéhna pamikir modern datang percaya Kristen alienates maranehna ti umat manusa tulus ...

Hayu urang ayeuna datang deui ka tinimbangan Maryam salaku Co-redemptrix. Perhaps we do have to acknowledge that Barth and others have been correct in believing that the place given to Mary in catholic theology is a threat to the doctrine of sola gratia (rahmat sorangan), tapi kuring mikir ieu kasus ngan lamun doktrin gratia sola anu diinterpretasi dina bentuk ekstrim nya, when this doctrine itself becomes a threat to a genuinely personal and biblical view of the human being…a being still capable of responding to God in the work of building up creation. Pintonan ieu harepanana tina ras manusa personified jeung diabadikan di Mary.

Dina glimpses Maryam yen urang geus di injil, ngadeg nya di cross gigireun Putra nya, jeung solat nya jeung intercessions jeung rasul, are particularly striking ways in which Mary shared and supported the work of Christ…it is Mary who has come to symbolize the perfect harmony between the divine will and the human response, so that it is she who gives meaning to the expression Co-redemptrix. (78)

Mary Co-redemptrix jeung proklamasi anyarna bakal ngawula ka nangtayungan kabebasan manusa, darajad, jeung imperatif manusa kalawan bébas gawé jeung rahmat kasalametan.

7. "Sangsara téh Redemptive" jeung "Kabudayaan of Kematian"

A harti solemn Maryam Co-redemptrix tangtu bakal proklamasi Christian ka dunya yén "sangsara téh redemptive." Conto Christian tina Co-redemptrix manifests ka dunya nu narima crosses providentially diijinkeun ayana manusa urang teu valueless a runtah ka dihindari pisan waragad, kaasup Dedemit intrinsik saperti euthanasia jeung aborsi. Tapi rada yén daya tahan sabar sadaya hardships manusa nu nilai supranatural lamun ngahiji jeung sufferings Yesus Kristus, a partisipasi dina sebaran graces redemptive of Calvary, boh pikeun diri urang sorangan jeung keur batur (Cf. Col. 1:24).

Komo conto Maryam Kang "enya" hirup unborn, dina kaayaan anu bisa piara judgment undue jeung ridicule ti urang sabudeureun nya, conto hiji co-redemptive "enya" yen sakabeh jelema kudu ngomong di respon ka kajadian hirup unborn, paduli Kaayaan nu.

John Paul II ngagambarkeun jaman kiwari "Kabudayaan of Death" salaku "iklim budaya nu gagal ngarasa sagala harti atawa nilai dina sangsara, tapi rada ngarasa sangsara jadi epitome jahat, jadi ngaleungitkeun pisan ongkos. Ieu utamana kasus di henteuna hiji outlook agama anu bisa mantuan nyadiakeun pamahaman positif tina misteri sangsara. " (79)

Conto kongkrit Maryam Co-redemptrix nawarkeun ka Gereja jeung dunya talatah Christian positif yen "sangsara téh redemptive" dina sagala kaayaan mungkin, tina fitnah Christian, kangker terminal, ka "nu teu dihoyongkeun" kakandungan, ka crosses biasa hirup sapopoé.

8. Bhineka ngaliwatan charism papal dina Garéja Katolik

Ti sudut pandang Katolik, charism nu (atawa kurnia Roh Suci) anu dibikeun ka St. Petrus jeung ngaganti nya, nu popes saterusna (cf. Mt: 16:15-20), mangrupakeun sumber persatuan di doktrin jeung dina kahirupan pikeun anggota gareja. Lamun charism papal tangtu infallibility dipaké dina pelestarian ti kasalahan ku Roh Suci dina urusan iman jeung moral, latihan saperti ieu safeguards charism papal jeung bener reinforces hiji kahijian Katolik dina kahirupan dumasar kana hiji kahijian dina iman, bebeneran jeung doktrin. Kauntungan sarua persatuan nu asalna jeung latihan di charism papal oge bisa dibere dina kasus definisi papal solemn Maryam Co-redemptrix.

It is sometimes objected that such a definition on Marian co-redemption would “cause division” within the Church. Hal ieu imperatif jadi jelas dina titik ieu: Bebeneran Christian ku unites alam nya; eta ngan tampikan bebeneran Christian anu meulah. Sarua bakal tahan bener keur harti poténsial Maryam Co-redemptrix.

Dina kasus nu pertama, eta geus aya pangajaran doctrinal Garéja jeung kukituna kudu geus ditarima ku satia Katolik jeung assent agama pikiran jeung bakal. (80) Bréh saperti ieu ngan nyatakeun, an latihan tina charism papal of infallibility di service bebeneran Kristen jeung salaku dipandu ku Roh Suci sorangan brings eta rahmat kahijian hate dumasar kana kahijian bebeneran jeung iman. Tapi saperti ieu bener keur Yesus Kristus, nu "tanda kontradiksi" (cf. Lk 2:35), jadi bakal bener tina penolakan tina bebeneran ngeunaan Basa ngeunaan "Sign of kontradiksi."

Ku alatan éta nu mana wae division dina Garéja di respon ka harti papal infallible of doktrin Co-redemptrix moal constitute, atawa akurat katarima salaku, komponén bener jeung valid tina harti papal sorangan, tapi ngan tampikan malang nya.

9. Wali modern jeung Co-redemptrix

One possible indication of the maturity of the Co-redemptrix doctrine and its potential definability is the modern testimony and teaching of this Marian truth by a great number of contemporary canonized saints and blesseds. Nu dermawan aprésiasi ku wali nu anyar jeung blesseds of Marian co-panebusan nunjukkeun ripeness spiritual nya dina hate of syi'ar gagah dina Body Kristus kiwari.

Those particularly vocal in their appreciation of Marian co-redemption, boh salaku doktrin Marian jeung salaku model kahirupan spiritual Christian, antarana St. Therese of Liseux, St. Maximilian Kolbe, St. Paus Pius X, St. Francis Xavier Cabrini, St. Gemma Galgani, St. Leopold Mandic, St. Edith Stein, St. Jose Maria Escriva, St. Padre Pio, Bl. Elizabeth ti Trinity, jeung loba batur. (81)

It also seems appropriate to quote Bl. Mother Teresa’s endorsement for the papal definition of Mary Co-redemptrix: "The harti papal Maryam Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix sadaya graces, jeung ngajengkeun bakal mawa graces badag ka gareja. Sadaya for bogoh ngaliwatan Mary. " (82)

10. Initiation of the Fatima prophesied Triumph of the Immaculate Heart

Sajumlah signifikan pangarang Marian kontemporer jeung pamikir sakuliah dunya (83) ogé nempo dina proklamasi papal Maryam Co-redemptrix, along with her subsequent spiritual roles as Mediatrix of all graces, jeung ngajengkeun, naon anu geus disebut minangka definitif "inisiasi" atawa awal Triumph tina suci beresih Heart Maryam, salaku prophesied dina 1917 Kaahéngan Maryam di Fatimah, Portugal.

The particular notion of the “Triumph of the Immaculate Heart” comes from the words of the Church approved apparitions of Mary at Fatima to the young Portuguese children seers, anu sanggeus prophesying acara saperti saperti gugah tina komunisme atheistic, persecutions pikeun Garéja jeung Rama Suci, poténsi perang dunya kadua, jeung cara ngaremukan rupa-rupa bangsa, mangka nyatakeun, "Tungtungna, mah suci beresih Heart bakal triumph .... " (84)

Nu Triumph tina suci beresih Heart Maryam téh mangka foreseen salaku pangasilan dramatis of rahmat gaib kana dunya, dimédiasi ka dunya ku Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, jeung ngajengkeun, jeung anjog ka hiji periode katengtreman spiritual pikeun umat manusa.

Peran proklamasi papal Maryam Co-redemptrix dina prophesied Triumph tina suci beresih Heart bakal katempo ku sababaraha contemporaries Marian salaku pangakuan resmi ku paus nu, salaku otoritas Garéja pangluhurna, exercising kabebasan nu diperlukeun dina bagian umat manusa pikeun ngidinan daya mediational jeung intercessory pinuh ku Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, jeung ngajengkeun jadi dirilis dina sebaran graces redemptive of Calvary ka dunya kontemporer.

Allah teu maksakeun rahmat-Na kana urang, tapi awaits nu idin bebas tina umat manusa. With the official papal definition of Mary Co-redemptrix by the highest human authority’s exercise of free will on behalf of humanity, this free act would “release” the Co-redemptrix to most fully distribute the graces of Calvary in a new outpouring of graces of the Holy Spirit for the world. Saperti dipedar ku urut Vatikan Ambassador Howard Dee Pilipina:

Dua rébu taun ka tukang, salila Advent Kahiji, Roh Suci datang kana Mary, jeung lamun kakawasaan Nu Maha Luhur overshadowed nya, manéhna katimu Yesus, Putra Allah. Ayeuna, salila Advent New ieu, ngarupakeun Basa Sadaya bangsa, Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix sadaya graces, jeung ngajengkeun, who will accompany her Spouse to descend into our hearts and our souls and recreate in each of us—if we give our fiat—into the likeness of Jesus…The proclamation of the Fifth Dogma is no longer our prerogative; geus tugas urang. (85)

Sapertos kitu, proklamasi papal Maryam Co-redemptrix bakal pangaruh siaran bersejarah of rahmat spiritual kana dunya ku latihan pinuh ku ibu spiritual sadaya bangsa di latihan paling dermawan nya of kalungguhan nya salaku Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix sadaya rahmat jeung ngajengkeun. (86)


Hal ieu bisa ngaharepkeun yén sababaraha cahaya geus héd kana patarosan pokok ngeunaan sawala hadir tina isu Mary Co-redemptrix sorangan jeung, saeutikna ku cara bubuka, in discussing the specific aspect of a potential papal definition of the Co-redemptrix doctrine.

Dina Salam ka mana harti poténsial kahareup Co-redemptrix ti sudut pandang Katolik, katengtreman jeung amanah dina hidayah ti Garéja ku pontiff dina perkara iman jeung moral pamustunganana kudu kakuasaan pang luhur di pikiran jeung jantung satia Katolik Kang, paduli opini pribadi hadir sah of diversity dina masalah.

Ti perspektif Christian umum ngeunaan doktrin Mary Co-redemptrix lianna doctrines nu geuwat ngabagi urang, hayu urang tetep iman dina pemenuhan ahirna tina solat Isa Al Masih keur persatuan Christian di dahar peuting Last nu, “… they may all be one, komo salaku thou, Rama seni di kuring, jeung di thee, nu maranéhanana ogé bisa jadi di urang, kituna dunya bisa percaya yén thou geus dikirim kuring " (Jn. 17:21). Eta ti kamajuan sajarah samentara atawa setbacks, Kristen kudu iman dina kamanunggalan Christian pamungkas jantung, nu bakal mekar jadi hiji kahijian pikiran, kaleresan, jeung iman dumasar kana hiji Yesus Kristus, anu "the Way, kanyataanna, nu Life " (Jn. 14:6).


(1) Ibu Teresa ti Kalkuta, Personal Interview, Calcutta, Agustus 14, 1993.

(2) John Paul II, Papal Address, Jan. 31, 1985, Guayaquil, Ékuador, (O.R., Maret 13, 1985).

(3) St. Irenaeus of Lyons, Ngalawan Heresies, III, 22, réa pangarang Kang.

(4) St. Jerome, Aksara. 22, 21.

(5) Modestus Yerusalem, Migne, PG 86; 3287.

(6) St. John Damascene, PG 86; 658.

(7) St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Aya. III, super Salve.

(8) St. Bonaventure, de sunda., Sp. 6; 14., réa pangarang Kang.

(9) Cf. Calkins, “Pope John Paul II’s Teaching on Marian Coredemption” as found in Miravalle, ed., Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Nyarankeun, Teologis pondasi II, p.113.

(10) Cf. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, Nn. 21, 28.

(11) Déwan Vatikan kadua, Restorasi nu, n. 11.

(12) John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, n. 36.

(13) John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, n. 18.

(14) Déwan Vatikan kadua, Cahaya, n. 56.

(15) Cahaya, n. 58.

(16) Cahaya, n. 61.

(17) John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, 18.

(18) John Cardinal O'Connor, Hurup dukungan Pikeun Harti Papal Maryam, Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Nyarankeun, Pebruari 14, 1994.

(19) Martin Luther, Commentary on the Magnificat, 1521, as quoted in Dr. Charles Dickson, A pendeta Protestan Nuhun di Mary, 1996, Our Sunday Visitor Press, pp. 41, 42.

(20) Ibid.

(21) Dickson, A pendeta Protestan Nuhun di Mary, pp. 48-49.

(22) John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, Nn. 21, 39.

(23) John Paul II, Papal Address, Roma, Oktober 1, 1997, L'Osservatore Romano, 1997, n. 41.

(24) J. Macquarrie, “Mary Co-redemptrix and Disputes over Justification and Grace” in Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Nyarankeun, Teologis pondasi II, p. 246.

(25) St. Irenaeus of Lyons, Ngalawan Heresies, III, 22, réa pangarang Kang.

(26) Modestus Yerusalem, Migne, PG 86; 3287.

(27) St. John Damascene, PG 86; 658.

(28) St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Aya. III, super Salve.

(29) St. Bonaventure, de sunda., Sp. 6; 14, réa pangarang Kang.

(30) St. Bonaventure, Sermo III de Assumptione, Opera, dina. 9.

(31) St. Bonaventure, Dikirim. III.

(32) St. Bonaventure, Nu conferring tina hadiah Roh Suci 6, n. 16.

(33) St. Albert the Great (atawa pseudo-Albert) Marian, Q. 150.

(34) John Panel, Kecap keur pesta ti penjernihan Nu Maha Agung Virgin Mary.

(35) Pidato, St. Peters’s in Salzburg, dina Analecta hymnica medii aevi, dina. 46, p. 126.

(36) For a more comprehensive treatment of Co-redemptrix throughout Christian Tradition, cf. J.B. Carol, Rahayu Virgin Mary of corredemptione, Newman Pencét, 1950, p. 125; G. Roschini, O.S.M., Maria Santissima Nella Storia Della Salvezza, 1969, dina. II, p.171.

(37) Rajékan. Fredrick Faber, Dina Foot tina Palang (Sorrows Maryam), Reilly Co., 370.

(38) Paus Leo XIII, Parta humano generi.

(39) Paus Benedict XV, Inter Sodalicia, 1918.

(40) Paus Pius XI, Allocution ka jamaah haji ti Vicenza, Nov. 30,1933.

(41) Déwan Vatikan kadua, Cahaya, n. 58

(42) John Paul II, Alamat Papal di Guayaquil, Januari 31, 1985 (O.R.E., 876).

(43) John Paul II, Pamiarsa General, April 9, 1997.

(44) John Paul II, Pamiarsa General, Maret 21, 2001.

(45) Salaku conto, cf. Pius XI, Allocution Papal di Vicenza, Nov. 30, 1933.

(46) John Paul II, Pamiarsa General, April 9,1997.

(47) Galotti, S.J., "Maria Corredentrice” in L’Osservatore Roman, September 15, 1997, Sapopoé Italia Ed.

(48) Cf. Déwan Vatikan kadua, Dei Verbum, II, Nn. 9-10.

(49) Cf. Déwan Vatikan kadua, Cahaya, n. 25.

(50) Déwan Vatikan kadua, Cahaya, n. 56.

(51) Cahaya, n. 58.

(52) Cahaya, n. 61.

(53) Jean Galot, S.J., "Maria Corredentrice. Sengketa jeung masalah doctrinal," Civilta Cattolica, 1994, III, 213-225.

(54) "Maria Corredentrice," L'Osservatore Romano, September 15, 1995, p. 4.

(55) Keur perlakuan nu leuwih lengkep, cf. Schug jeung Miravalle, “Mary Co-redemptrix in the Documents of the Papal Magisterium” di Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Nyarankeun, Pondasi teologis I, Queenship, 1995; Calkins, “Pope John Paul’s Teaching on Marian Co-redemption” in Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Nyarankeun, Teologis pondasi II, pp.113-148.

(56) Paus Leo XIII, Encyclical salawasna Pleasant, 1884.

(57) Paus St. Pius X, Encyclical Ad diem illum, 1904.

(58) Paus Benedict XV, Apostolik Letter, Inter Sodalicia, 1918.

(59) Paus Pius XI, Doa si nutup Solemn tina Jubilee panebusan, April 28, 1933.

(60) Paus Pius XII, Encyclical 'S Awak, 1943.

(61) Paus John Paul II, Apostolik Letter Penderitaan Redemptive, n.25.

(62) John Paul II, Alamat Papal di Guayaquil, Ékuador, Jan. 31, 1985.

(63) Cf. For six citations and commentary, cf. Calkins, “The Mystery of Mary Coredemptrix in the Papal Magisterium” in Miravalle, ed., Mary Co-redemptrix: Isu Doctrinal Dinten, Queenship, 2002, pp. 41ff.

(64) Deui, cf. Cahaya, n. 25.

(65) Bl. Paus Pius IX, Dogmatis Bull, Ineffable Allah, Desember 8, 1854.

(66) Pikeun perlakuan extended, cf. J. B. Carol, "Kami Lady Kang Co-panebusan,"Dina Mariology, Vol. II, Bruce, 1958; Friethoff, A Mariology lengkep, Blackfriars Pub., London, 1985, p.182; Galotti, S.J., Maria: Mediatrix atawa Universal ibu?," Civilta Cattolica, 1996, Abdi, 232-244.

(67) Galotti, S.J., "Maria Corredentrice: Sengketa jeung masalah doctrinal,"Civilta Cattolica, 1994, III, p. 218.

(68) Cf. Friethoff, dina. cit.

(69) Cf. J.B. Carol, dina. cit.

(70) Karol Cardinal Wojtyla, Homily dina Feast tina suci beresih konsépsi, Desember 8, 1973.

(71) Bl. Pius IX, Ineffable Allah, Desember 8, 1854, DS 2802.

(72) John Cardinal O'Connor, Hurup dukungan Pikeun Harti Papal Maryam, Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Nyarankeun, Pebruari 14, 1994.

(73) Alma Socia Christi, Cara ngagawe tina Roma International Mariological Kongrés, 1950, p. 234.

(74) Dr. Josef Seifert nyaéta Réktor International Akademi Philosophy Liechtenstein jeung anggota Déwan Pontifical Pikeun Kahirupan.

(75) Seifert, “Mary as Co-redemptrix and Mediatrix of all Graces—Philosophical and Personalist Foundations of a Marian Doctrine,"Dina Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Nyarankeun, Teologis pondasi II, p. 166.

(76) Seifert, ibid., p.168.

(77) Ibid.

(78) J. Macquarrie, “Mary Co-redemptrix and Disputes over Justification and Grace” in Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Nyarankeun, Teologis pondasi II, pp. 248, 255.

(79) John Paul II, 1995 Encyclical, Evangelium vitae, n. 15.

(80) Deui cf. Cahaya, n. 25.

(81) For a more comprehensive treatment of modern hagiography on Marian Co-redemption, cf. Stefano Manelli, FFI, “Twentieth Century Hagiography on Marian Co-redemption” in Mary di Foot tina Palang, Acts of the England Symposium on Marian Co-redemption, 1999.

(82) Ibu Teresa ti Kalkuta, Hurup dukungan pikeun Kalima Marian dogma, Agustus 14, 1993.

(83) Keur sampel pamikiran saperti, cf. Dina Miravalle, ed., Wawasan kontemporer dina Kalima Marian dogma, Teologis pondasi III, Queenship, 2000, nu karangan di handap ieu: Duta Howard Dee, "Ambassador kami Lady Kang, John Paul II, Fatimah, jeung Kalima Marian dogma "; Dr. Bartolomeus, "A Élmuwan Explores Mary, Co-redemptrix "; Calkins, “The Messages of the Lady of All Nations.”

(84) Memoar of SR. Lucia of Fatimah, Juli 13, 1917.

(85) Duta Howard Dee, "Ambassador kami Lady Kang, John Paul II, Fatimah, jeung Kalima Marian dogma,” in Contemporary Insights on a Fifth Marian Dogma, Queenship, 2000, pp. 12-13.

(86) Pikeun perlakuan extended, cf. Miravalle, Dogma jeung Triumph, Queenship, 1998.

Asalna ti: Basa Sadaya bangsa (AS)